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I. The Industrial Revolution: British Phase II. Industrialization: The Continental Phase

I. The Industrial Revolution: British Phase II. Industrialization: The Continental Phase III. The Workers: The Manchester Microcosm IV. Socialism and Industrialization V. The Middle Classes VI. Science, Technology, and the Second Industrial Revolution VII. Cultural Responses to the Age.

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I. The Industrial Revolution: British Phase II. Industrialization: The Continental Phase

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  1. I. The Industrial Revolution: British PhaseII. Industrialization: The Continental Phase III. The Workers: The Manchester Microcosm IV. Socialism and Industrialization V. The Middle Classes VI. Science, Technology, and the Second Industrial RevolutionVII. Cultural Responses to the Age

  2. I. The Industrial Revolution: British Phase • A. The Revolution in the Making of Cloth • John Kay (1704–1764) • 1733, flying shuttle • James Hargreaves (d. 1778) • 1764, spinning jenny • Richard Arkwright (1732–1792) • 1769, water frame • Samuel Crompton (1753–1827) • 1779, water mule • Edmund Cartwright (1743–1823) • 1785, power loom • Eli Whitney (1765–1825) • cotton gin, 50 times faster • Steam Power • Thomas Newcomen (1663–1729) • James Watt (1736–1819) • B. Britain’s Advantages • Henry Bessemer (1813–1898)

  3. II. Industrialization: The Continental Phase • A. Industrialization and Banking Changes • by 1815: Belgium, France, Germany • slower: Sweden, Russia, Switzerland • Banking, from 1815 • Hope and Baring, London • Rothschilds, Paris, Vienna, London • Capital • investment banks • middle class

  4. II. Industrialization: The Continental Phase • B. The Zollverein • = customs union, from 1819, Prussia • C. Agricultural and Transportation • Thomas Robert Malthus (1766–1834) • 1815: 85% of population in farming • 1900: 10% • Transportation • Duke of Bridgewater, canal to Manchester • 1869, Suez Canal • 1914, Panama Canal • John MacAdam, all-weather road • 1750s, London to Sheffield, 4 days • 1820, 28 hours • John Stephenson, Rocket, 1829

  5. III. The Workers: The Manchester Microcosm • A. The Factory System • owners v. workers • B. Women and Child Labor • C. Urban Crises • George Haussman (1809–1891) • Paris • D. The Labor Movement • 1819, Peterloo • 1825, Combination Acts (1799) • repealed

  6. C. Socialism and the Labor Movement • 1864, International Workingmen’s Association • (The First International) • Fabian Society • George Bernard Shaw • H. G. Wells • Sidney and Beatrice Webb • Social Democrats • Ferdinand Lasalle • Germany • Second International (1889–1914) • IV. Socialism and Industrialization • A. Utopian Socialism • Comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825) • Charles Fourier (1772–1837) • Robert Owen (1771–1858) • New Lanark • > New Harmony • B. Karl Marx and Communism • Utopian > Scientific socialism • Karl Marx (1818–1883) • Das Capital • Friederich Engels (1820–1895)

  7. (C. Changes in the Christian Churches) • Quakers • Universal Friends • Jemima Wilkinson (1752–1819) • Shakers • Ann Lee (1736–1784) • Oxford Movement • John Henry Newman (1801–1890) • Catholic Church • Pius IX (1846–1878) • Syllabus of Errors, 1864 • Leo XIII (1879–1903) • Rerum Novum, 1891 • V. The Middle Classes • A. “Upstairs, Downstairs” • B. The English Example • Victorian Era (1837–1901) • C. Changes in the Christian Churches • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) • Critique of Pure Reason, 1781 • Methodism • John Wesley (1703–1791) • Charles Wesley (1708–1788) • George Whitefield (1714–1770) • from Pietism • 1791—leave Anglican church • Lutheran Pietism • Philipp Spener (1635–1705) • Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772) • “Great Awakening” • Moravians, Methodists, Baptists, Quakers

  8. V. The Middle Classes • D. Humanitarian Movements • Abolition • 1744, Britain • William Wilberforce (1759–1833) and • Hannah More (1745–1833) • 1807, British slave trade ended • E. Liberalism: The Middle-Class Ideology • Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) • utilitarianism (= philosophical radicalism) • John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)

  9. B. Charles Darwin (1809–1892) • On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection • 1859 • Charles Lyell (1797–1875) • Principles of Geology (1830–1833) • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) • Genetics • August Weisman (1834–1914) • Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) • C. Technological Growth and Advances • Electricity • Engines • Gottlieb Daimler (1834–1900) • Rudolf Diesel, 1832 • VI. Science, Technology, and the Second Industrial Revolution • A. Medicine, Chemistry, Physics • Medicine Ether, chloroform • Joseph Lister (1827–1912) • Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) • Robert Koch (1843–1910) • tuberculosis • Chemistry • John Dalton (1766–1844) • atomic theory • Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907) • periodic table • Physics • Michael Faraday (1791–1867) • James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) • Heinrich Hertz (1857–1894) • Pierre Curie (1859–1906) and • Marie Curie (1867–1934) • Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937)

  10. VII. Cultural Responses to the Age • A. Conservatism • Edmund Burke (1729–1797) • Joseph de Maistre (1753–1821) • Nicholas Karamzin (1766–1826) • Juan Donoso-Cortés (1809–1853) • B. Romanticism • Fiction • Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) • Sorrows of Werther, 1774 • Friedrich von Schiller (1759–1805) • Wilhelm Tell, 1804 • Victor Hugo (1802–1885) • Notre Dame de Paris, 1831 • Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832) • Ivanhoe, 1819 • William Makepeace Thackeray (1811–1863) • Vanity Fair, 1848 • (B. Romanticism) • Poetry • William Wordsworth (1770–1850) and • Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834) • Lyrical Ballads, 1798 • Alphonse de Lamartine (1790–1869) • Lord Byron (1788–1824) • Percy Bysse Shelley (1792–1822) • Heinrich Heine (1797–1856) • Buch der Lieder • John Keats (1795–1821) • Alexander Pushkin (1799–1837) • Painting • Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863) • Liberty Leading the People • John Constable (1776–1837) • Joseph M. W. Turner (1775–1851)

  11. (E. Beethoven and His Successors) • Opera Giuseppe Verdi (1813–1901) • Richard Wagner (1813–1883)Der Ring des Nibelungen • F. Impressionism in the Arts • Gustave Courbet (1819–1877) • Édouard Manet (1832–1882) • Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841–1919) • Mary Cassatt (1845–1926) • Paul Cézanne (1839–1903) • Vincent van Gogh (1853–1890)G. Sculpture and Architecture • Auguste Rodin (1840–1917) • Louis Sullivan (1856–1924) • VII. Cultural Responses to the Age • C. Nationalism • George Wilhelm Friederich Hegel (1770–1831) • Johan Gottfried von Herder (1744–1803) • Volkgeist • Jacob Grimm (1785–1863) and • Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859) • Giuseppe Mazzini (1805–1872) • Alessandro Manzoni (1785–1873) • Leopold von Ranke • Jules Michelet • D. Realism • Honoré de Balzac (1799–1850) • La Comédie Humaine • E. Beethoven and His Successors • Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827) • Hector Berlioz (1803–1869) • Robert Schumann (1810–1856) • Johannes Brahms (1833–1897) • Gustave Mahler (1860–1911) • Frédéric Chopin (1810–1849)

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