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Final Exam Review

Final Exam Review

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Final Exam Review

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  1. Final Exam Review

  2. The area of Earth science that examines the physical and biological changes that have occurred in Earth’s past is called ____. • A. meteorology • C.physical geology • B.oceanography • D.historical geology

  3. D.historical geology

  4. Earth’s four major spheres are the ____. • A. hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere • B. hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere • C. hydrosphere, asthenosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere • D. hydrosphere, geosphere, lithosphere, and asthenosphere

  5. A. hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere

  6. The theory of plate tectonics helps scientists explain ____. • A. how ocean currents move over Earth’s surface • B. why hurricanes occur • C. how earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur • D. why Earth’s core is less dense than the mantle

  7. C. how earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur

  8. What is the driving force for the movement of the lithospheric plates? • A. heat from the sun • B. unequal distribution of heat within Earth • C. heat in the atmosphere • D. unequal distribution of heat in the oceans

  9. B. unequal distribution of heat within Earth

  10. According to the plate tectonics model, what layers form Earth’s rigid, mobile plates? • A. inner and outer core • C. crust only • B. upper and lower mantle • D. crust and uppermost mantle

  11. D. crust and uppermost mantle

  12. The distance, measured in degrees, north and south of the equator is referred to as ____. • A. longitude • C. the prime meridian • B. latitude • D. the poles

  13. B. latitude

  14. On the global grid, the prime meridian is at ____. • A. 0 degrees latitude • C. 0 degrees longitude • B. 90 degrees latitude • D. 90 degrees longitude

  15. C. 0 degrees longitude

  16. Earth is considered a system because all of its parts ____. • A. represent separate closed systems • B. interact • C. were formed at the same time • D. are powered by the same energy source

  17. B. interact

  18. Which of the following would be one of the interacting parts in a weather system? • A. weather satellite • C. clouds • B. tectonic plate • D. Earth’s inner core

  19. C. clouds

  20. Which of the following is NOT caused by human interactions with the Earth system? • A. air pollution • C. mountain building • B. water pollution • D. deforestation

  21. C. mountain building

  22. Which of the following is NOT an example of a renewable resource? • A. cotton • C. chicken • B. lumber • d. iron

  23. d. iron

  24. A scientific idea that is well tested and widely accepted by the scientific community is called a scientific ____. • A. hypothesis • C. theory • B. inquiry • D. method

  25. C. theory

  26. In scientific inquiry, when competing hypotheses have been eliminated, a hypothesis may be elevated to the status of a scientific ____. • A. estimate • C. theory • B. idea • D. truth

  27. C. theory

  28. Which of the following is true about rocks? • A. Rocks are composed of only one mineral. • B. Rocks do not contain any nonmineral matter. • C. Coal is not considered a true rock. • D. Most rocks are a mixture of minerals.

  29. D. Most rocks are a mixture of minerals.

  30. Which of the following is NOT considered to be a rock? • A. coal • C. pumice • B. sandstone • D. lava

  31. D. lava

  32. Where is the energy source found that drives the processes that form igneous and metamorphic rocks? • A. the sun • C. Earth’s interior • B. the wind • D. moving water

  33. C. Earth’s interior

  34. A rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth’s surface is called an ____. • A. intrusive metamorphic rock • B. intrusive igneous rock • C. extrusive sedimentary rock • D. extrusive igneous rock

  35. B. intrusive igneous rock

  36. Which of the following is an example of an extrusive igneous rock? • A. rhyolite • C. andesite • B. granite • D. coal

  37. A. rhyolite

  38. The igneous rock texture that is characterized by two distinctly different crystal sizes is called ____. • A. coarse-grained texture • C. glassy texture • B. fine-grained texture • D. porphyritic texture

  39. D. porphyritic texture

  40. Lava that cools so quickly that ions do not have time to arrange themselves into crystals will form igneous rocks with a ____. • A. porphyritic texture • C. coarse-grained texture • B. glassy texture • D. fine-grained texture

  41. B. glassy texture

  42. A conglomerate is a rock that forms as a result of ____. • A. intense heat and pressure • C. rapid cooling • B. compaction and cementation • D. slow cooling

  43. B. compaction and cementation

  44. Which of the following is a use for fossils found in sedimentary rocks? • A. interpreting past environments • B. indicating when the rock formed • C. matching rocks of the same age found in different places • D. all of the above

  45. D. all of the above

  46. Sedimentary rocks with ripple marks suggest that the rocks formed ____. • A. along a beach or stream bed • B. when ancient animals walked over them • C. from the shell fragments of ancient sea-dwelling animals • D. when wet mud dried and shrank

  47. A. along a beach or stream bed

  48. In which of the following settings would a metamorphic rock most likely form? • A. an ocean floor • C. 8 kilometers below Earth’s surface • B. a desert • D. on the slopes of an active volcano

  49. C. 8 kilometers below Earth’s surface

  50. What rock-forming process occurs when hot magma forces its way into rock? • A. regional metamorphism • C. contact metamorphism • B. biochemical sedimentation • D. deposition