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The Age of Roosevelt. (yes, the second one). Why Study History?. So what? How is it useful to you? How is it useful to your students?. What kind of history teacher do I want to be?. The Roaring Twenties.

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the age of roosevelt

The Age of Roosevelt

(yes, the second one)

why study history
Why Study History?
  • So what?
  • How is it useful to you?
  • How is it useful to your students?
what kind of history teacher do i want to be

What kind of history teacher do I want to be?

the roaring twenties
The Roaring Twenties
  • Rejection of League of Nationsand German Reparations
  • Presidential Politics: Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge (Election of 1920)
  • “Miss America”
roaring twenties cont d
Roaring Twenties, cont’d.
  • National Origins Act of 1924
  • “Birth of a Nation” (1915) (poster)
roaring twenties cont d1
Roaring Twenties, cont’d.
  • Harlem Renaissance
  • Scopes Trial (1925)
  • Election of 1928 (election results)New York’s Al Smith and Herbert Hoover
  • In what ways did the U.S. change in the 1920s?
election of 1928
Election of 1928

Blue: Alfred E. Smith 14%

Red: Herbert Hoover 86%

causes of the great depression
Causes of the Great Depression?
  • World War I and Onset of World Economic Crisis
  • Weakening of world chemical industry
  • Real Estate Speculation (esp. Florida)
  • Too many poor banks (only 1/3rd belonged to the Federal Reserve)
  • Stock Market Speculation (Buying on Margin) (stock prices increased 54% from 1922-1929)
causes of the great depression cont d
Causes of the Great Depression? Cont’d
  • Downturn in agricultural prices after end of World War I
  • Rising unemployment
  • Rising inventories
  • Stocks continued to rise until…
october 1929
October 1929
  • Thursday, October 24, 1929 stocks fall 40%
  • J.P. Morgan Co. forms $240m pool to shore up the market
  • Tuesday, October 29, 1929Black Tuesday
short term consequences
Short-term Consequences
  • From 1929-1932 100,000 businesses went bankrupt
  • 659 banks failed in 19296,000 by the end of 1932
  • Industrial production was down by 26% by the end of 1930 and 51% by 1932
short term consequences cont d
Short-term Consequences, cont’d.
  • 25% of the workforce was unemployed by the winter of 1932-1933
  • 50% unemployment among those 16-29 and high rates among minority groups
  • 40%+ unemployment in industrial cities such as Chicago and Detroit
  • For those with jobs, 40% decrease in salaries and 60% in manufacturing wages
  • Backlash against married women working for wages
  • Deportation of Americans of Mexican ethnicity—many were U.S. citizens
herbert hoover s response
Herbert Hoover’s Response
  • Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act
  • Philosophy of volunteerism
  • Asked Great Britain and France to put a 1 year moratorium on reparation payments from Germany (declined)
hoover and the great depression cont d
Hoover and the Great Depression, cont’d
  • Est. Emergency Committee for Employment to coordinate efforts of voluntary relief agenciesalso encouraged some federal public works projects: Hoover Dam
  • Est. National Credit Corporation (voluntary)
  • January, 1932: Est. Reconstruction Finance Corporation$2b in federal spending
bonus march july 1932
Bonus MarchJuly 1932
  • WW I Veterans ask for bonuses promised to them in 1924, but to be paid in 1945
  • Spring, 1932: Texas Democrat introduces bill in Congress to pay veterans bonus immediately
  • July, 1932: 20,000 unemployed veterans and their families come to Washington to lobby for the bill
  • Hoover calls army to keep the peace, conflict on July 29, 1932
  • 2 veterans are killed
election of 1932
Election of 1932
  • Franklin Roosevelt vs. Herbert Hoover

Roosevelt 57.4%Hoover 39.6%

  • Wealthy New York family (cousin of TR)
  • Attended Harvard and Columbia Law School
  • Assistant Sec. of the Navy under Woodrow Wilson
  • Polio survivor (1921)
  • VP candidate with James Cox (D-OH) in 1920
  • Elected NY governor in 1928 and re-elected 1930
1932 democrat party platform
1932 Democrat Party Platform
  • Repeal the 18th Amendment
  • Give federal aid to farmers
  • Balance the federal budget, but 25% of federal spending
  • Create a “new deal for the American people” (acceptance speech)
  • Democrats also won overwhelming majority in Congress
first new deal
First New Deal
  • Even before he got to the White House, Congress repealed the 18th Amendment
  • Inaugurated on March 4, 1933
  • Est. Brain Trust (Kitchen Cabinet)
  • Emergency Banking Act March 5, 1933
  • Following Sunday evening:

1st Fireside Chat (banking)

Cut federal salaries and slashed veterans’ pensions to reduce federal spending

first new deal cont d
First New Deal, cont’d
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Act
  • Securities and Exchange Commission
  • Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) to employ jobless veterans and unmarried young men ages 17-25
  • National Industrial Recovery Act (NRA)
first new deal cont d1
First New Deal, cont’d.
  • Home Owners Loan Corporation
  • Farm Credit Administration
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration
  • Tennessee Valley Authority and Rural Electrification
breaking new ground
Breaking New Ground?
  • Changes in the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
second new deal
Second New Deal
  • Works Progress Administration (1935)
  • National Youth Administration (1935)
  • Social Security Act, 1935

  • National Labor Relations Act, 1935Followed by Fair Labor Standards Act in 1938 (among other regulations it outlawed most child labor)
modernizing the nation creating new model communities
Modernizing the NationCreating New Model Communities

Kids playing in a New Deal park in Greenbelt Maryland (Resettlement Administration)

election of 1936
Election of 1936

Franklin Roosevelt 60.8%

Alf Landon 36.5 %