Meat Nutrition and Foods 2011
Types of Meat Cattle Sheep Hogs
Ground Beef • Regular • Lean • Extra Lean • Meat is a potentially hazardous food (PHF). High protein, high moisture, and low acid.
All meat has tissue, muscle, connective tissue and fat • The cut or part affects tenderness, cooking method, leanness and cost
Term and Definitions • Cut: Specific Portion of Meat • Marbling: Intermingling of fat throughout the lean (muscle) of meat • Grades of Meat: Measure of quality of meat. Examples of grades of meat include; prime, choice, good, standard, commercial, utility, cutter and canner
All meat sold must, by law, pass inspection. • The purpose of the inspection is to protect the consumer and to guarantee the meat is okay to eat. Although inspection of meat is involuntary to the meat industry, the grading of meat is voluntary.
Meat is often called Red Meat to distinguish it from the meat of poultry and fish. • Meat from Hogs = Pork • Meat from Cattle = Beef • Meat from Young Cattle = Veal • Meat from Sheep = Lamb/Mutton • Meat from Deer or Elk = Venison
Meat Cuts Tender Cuts Less Tender Cuts The most exercised portion of the animal (rump, flank etc). These can be cooked by moist heat method to soften the meat • The least exercised portion of the animal usually located along the backbone and upper ribs (rib, T-bone etc). • These can be cooked by dry heat method.
Variety Meat • Edible part of animal other than skeletal muscles; includes various organs and parts • Tongue, liver, kidney etc
3 Things to Look for When Buying Meat • Lean • The color should be bright to deep red • Marbling • Improves flavor, but excess marbling increases calories • Fat Cover • Fat which covers the exterior of beef. Look for a fat covering of 1/2” on steaks and roasts. The fat should be white and not yellow The tenderness of the meat and the amount of marbling and juiciness are considered when grading meat. The two meat grades most often purchases are: Choice and Good.
Leanest Cuts of Beef: Flank and Round Steak • Cuts with the Most Fat: Rib Steaks, Brisket, and Chuck • Meat is available to buy in several forms: • Fresh, Frozen, Canned and Cured.
Dry Heat MethodsTender Cuts Pan Broiling Broiling Place beef on rack in broiler pan Broil 2 to 5 inches from heat Broil until top surface is browned Season with salt and pepper Turn meat, cook until done Season Example: Steak • Place beef in heavy frying-pan • Do not add fat or water. Do not cover. • Cook Slowly, turning occasionally. • Pour off fat as it accumulates • Brown meat on both sides • Season • Example: Top Sirloin Steak or Fillet Mignon
Dry Heat MethodsTender Cuts Pan Frying Roasting Season with salt and pepper, if desired Place beef fat side up on rack Insert meat thermometer Do not add water. Do not cover Roast in slow oven Example: Sunday Roast • Place beef in a small amount of fat in frying pan • Brown on both sides • Season with salt and pepper. • Do not cover • Cook at moderate temperature until done, turning occasionally • Example: Meat Balls, Hamburgers
Moist Heat MethodsLess Tender Cuts Braising Cooking in Liquid Coat beef with seasoned flour, if desired Brown on all sides in own fat or drippings, when desired Cover with liquid, cover utensil, cook below boiling point until tender Add veggies just long enough before serving to be cooked. Example: Beef Stew • Brown beef in heavy utensil • Season with salt and pepper • Add small amount of liquid • Cover tightly • Cook at low temperature until tender • Example: Short Ribs, Beef Roast
Cost Per Serving • Locate top sirloin steak. • Write down the servings per pound a top sirloin steak will provide. • Write down the price per pound from the package label or a newspaper ad. • Divide the price per pound by the number of servings per pound a top sirloin steak will provide. This is the cost per serving.
Cost Per Serving Find out the cost per serving for the other 7 types of meat found on the chart.