Meat Beef, Pork, Veal, Lamb
Nutritional Value of Meat • High in protein • Good sources of iron, phosphorus, copper, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin. • Some meat cuts are high in saturated fat. • Fat gives meat flavor and appeal
What is Meat? Definition: Edible portion of mammals Meat includes beef (from mature cattle), lamb (from young sheep), pork (from hogs), and veal (from young cattle).
Beef Is meat from cattle over one year old. It has a hearty flavor. The cuts have bright red flesh. The fat is firm with a white, creamy white, or yellowish color.
Beef • Animals sold for meat are most often steers and heifers. • Steers are young, castrated males • Heifers are young females who have never had a calf.
Beef Ground Beef: contains only the fat originally attached to the meat before grinding. Hamburger: can have extra fat added to it during grinding
Cuts of Meat Wholesale cuts: Large cut of meat shipped to a retail grocery store or meat market. Retail cuts: A smaller cut of meat taken from a larger wholesale cut and sold to consumers in retail stores.
Wholesale Cuts • Wholesale also known as Primal cuts refer to the entire edible portion of the animal.
Retail cuts are what you find in the supermarket. They are smaller sections of the wholesale cut. • 1 Ground beef & meat for stews • 2 Chuck roasts & chuck steaks • 3 Rib roasts, rib steaks, ribeye roasts & ribeye steaks • 4 Loin top loin steak • 5 T-bone steak • 6 Porter House steak, tenderloin roast & tenderloin steak
Retail Cuts Continued • 7 Sirloin steaks • 8 Boneless rump roast • 9 Round roasts and round steaks • 10 Heel of round • 11 Beef round tip roast cap off • 12 Flank steak
More Retail Cuts • 13 Ground beef & meat for stews • 14 Short ribs • 15 Boneless brisket • 16 Cross rib pot roast • 17 Shank crosscut • 18 Arm roast
Cuts of Meats A cut refers to a particular edible part of meat. Example of cuts of beef include: Steaks Chops Roasts And organ meats (liver, gizzards)
Veal Is meat from very young calves, one to three months old. It has a mild flavor and light pink color with very little fat. “Special Fed Veal” has been fed a special milk-base diet; the flesh is more tender with a grayish-pink color and white fat.
Pork The meat of swine, most coming from swine 7-12 months of age. Has a mild flavor. Fresh pork is a grayish-pink color with white, soft fat. Also nicknamed the other white meat.
Pork • Ham: Comes from the pork leg. • Is cured and usually smoked • You can purchase ham fully cooked, or it may require cooking • Bacon: Smoke pork belly meat • Canadian bacon: Made from boneless pork loins
Lamb • Lamb: The meat of sheep less than one year old. • Is tender and has a mild but unique flavor. • Cuts are bright pink-red color with white, brittle fat. • The fat is sometimes covered with a “fell”, a colorless connective tissue.
Sheep • Yearling lamb: Meat of 1-2 year old sheep • Mutton: Meat of sheep over 2 years old • Stronger flavor than lamb and less tender
Variety Meats • Edible parts of the animal other than the muscles. • Usually inexpensive and rich in vitamins and minerals. • The liver, heart, kidney, and tongue of beef, veal, lamb, and pork
Variety Meats • Sweetbreads: thymus glands of beef, lamb, and veal • Beef tripe: stomach lining • Brains, tongue, liver, etc. • Chitterlings: cleaned intestines • Pork jowls: tail, feet, ears, and snout
Processed Meats • Meats can be processed into products such as ham, bacon, sausage, and cold cuts. • About 35% of the meat produced in the U.S. is processed. • Processing involves treating the meat to extend its shelf-life and create a distinctive flavor.
Processing Methods One common processing method is curing. This method uses a mixture of salt, sugar, nitrite, ascorbic acid, and water. The meat may be soaked in the solution or the solution may be injected into the meat. Other processes include: drying, salting, and smoking.
Inspection of Meat • Federal inspectors must examine all meat and meat products shipped across state lines. • A round inspection mark stamp is stamped onto the meat with a harmless vegetable dye. It is placed on all wholesale cuts to indicate that the meat is wholesome and came from a sanitary plant.
Grading of Meat • Meat is graded by quality. • Factors influencing grade: marbling, maturity, texture, and appearance.
Common Grades For Beef • PRIME is the highest and most expensive grade. The meat is well marbled with fat. It is very tender and flavorful. • CHOICE is the most common grade sold in supermarkets. It has less marbling than prime but still is tender and flavorful. • SELECT contains the least amount of marbling and is least expensive. It is sometimes sold as a store brand.
Composition of Meat • Marbling: small white flecks that appear within the muscle tissue of meat. • Collagen: thin, white or transparent connective tissue. • When heated using moist heat cooking methods, becomes soft and turns into gelatin. • Elastin: is a yellowish, very tough connective tissue. • It cannot be softened by heat. • Other tenderizing methods such as pounding, cutting, or grinding must be used to break down elastin
Ways to Tenderize Meat • Mechanically: • Pounding of steak • Grinding of ground beef • Chemically: • Marinating: soaking meat in a solution called a marinade • Coagulation: heat softens the collagen in the connective tissue.
Controlling Temperature • Cooking loss: during cooking, meat shrinks, decreasing in size and weight. • Fat, water, and other easily evaporized substances evaporate from the surface of the meat. • Excessive cooking losses occur when you cook meat at too high a temperature or for too long a time.
Meat cooked at low temperatures will shrink less, be juicier, more flavorful, and easier to chew. • Meat should not cook below 325 degrees or bacteria will grow before the meat is finished cooking. • Degree of doneness: the internal temperature of the meat. • Meat thermometer • Make sure it isn’t touching the bone or resting in fat
Roasting Meat • Used for large, tender cuts of beef, veal, pork, and lamb. • Place meat with the fat side up on a rack in a large, shallow pan. The fat will baste the meat during cooking and the rack will keep the meat out of the fat.
Broiling Meat • Broiling is done under a direct flame in gas broilers and under the direct heating element in electric broilers • Broil tender beef steaks, lamb, pork chops, ham slices, ground beef, and ground lamb. • If cut too thin, it will dry out before cooking thoroughly.
Panbroiling Meat • Cooking the meat in a skillet, turning it occasionally to ensure even cooking. • Only requires half the time as broiling • Check for doneness by making small slash with a knife near the bone and check the color.
Frying Meat Fry thin pieces of tender meat, tenderized meat, ground meat patties, or cooked meat slices. Fry meats in a small amount of fat. A variation of panfrying is stir-frying
Braising Meat Cooking in a small amount of liquid in a tightly covered pan over low heat. Braise less tender meat cuts and tender cuts of pork and veal. Braise in the oven or on the stove top.
Cooking Meat in Liquid • Cooking meats completely covered in liquid. • This is used for less tender cuts of meat. • When used with whole cuts of meat, this method is called simmering. • When used with small pieces of meat, this method is called stewing.
Microwaving Meats Cover meats in a microwave to hold in the steam, to keep it moist and tender.
Cost of Meat per Serving • Depends on the tenderness of meat • Tender cuts cost more than less tender cuts • Depends on the amount of waste • Meat with bones often cost less than boneless cuts
Storage • Meats require cold storage below 40 degrees F. • If stored in the fridge, ground meats and variety meats should be used within one-two days. • Other fresh meats should be kept in the fridge for three-five days. • For longer storage freeze the meat.
Refrigerator/Freezer Storage Recommendations • Fridge -Beef Roasts/Steaks (3-5 days) -Pork Roasts/Chops (3-5 days) -Lamb Roasts/Chops (3-5 days) -Veal Roasts (3-5 days) -Ground Meats (1-2 Days) • Freezer -Beef Roasts/Steaks (6-12 months) -Pork Roasts/Chops (4-6 months) -Lamb Roasts/Chops (6-9 months) -Veal Roasts (4-8 months) -Ground Meats (3-4 months)