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Introduction to Human Communication. Chapter One Dr.Inas A.Hamid Faculty of mass communication. What is communication?. The transfer of meaning from one person to another by speech, symbols, writing, or signs to establish a common understanding .

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introduction to human communication

Introduction to Human Communication

Chapter One


Faculty of mass communication

what is communication
What is communication?
  • The transfer of meaning from one person to another by speech, symbols, writing, or signs to establish a common understanding.

So at least three elements are involved in the communication process:

    • The person who sends the message(sender or source)
    • The message
    • The person who receives the message (receivers)

So the communication process consists of several “communication acts”.

  • Wilbur Schramm diagrammed the communication act in 1961 as follows:

But it was easy to criticize this diagram. Why???

the complete communication process may be diagramed as follows
The complete communication process may be diagramed as follows:
  • Each person is alternatively a sender and then a receiver.
  • Understanding between the two communicators is not complete until the receiver of the initial communication responded to the message.
  • If the receiver doesn't understand the message , he will send a message of query to the sender.
in mass communication
In mass communication

The communication process is quite complex because there are many receivers who may communicate with each other before responding to the message.

The message may have different effect upon the receivers (response).

communication elements1
Communication Elements
  • The Sender (encoder): Someone should put the message into a “code” that thought to be understandable to the intended receiver. This means the thought of the receiver (intrapersonal) is very important.
  • The Receiver (decoder): when the receiver is exposed to the message , he starts to decode the message and this act also requires intrapersonal communication.
  • The Message: which the sender wishes the receiver to understand. The message can be easy or difficult to understand, it can be analytical or opinionated and so on….

The channel: The mechanism by which the message is transmitted.

  • Feedback: A return message from the receiver to the sender. It is a response that tells the sender that the message has been understood or misunderstood. Feedback may be immediate or delayed. Feedback can be verbal or nonverbal.
  • Noise: that tends to disrupt the communication, put barriers to understanding, distract attention and in general frustrate the communication process. Two main noises cause the trouble:
    • Mechanical noise.
    • Semantic noise.

Mechanical noise: is physical ( static on the radio, missing lines from a newspaper story,….

  • Semantic noise: it is the degree of potential misunderstanding between sender and receiver. Semantic noise is largely unavoidable.
  • Do you think there is a relationship between intrapersonal communication and interpersonal communication?
  • In intrapersonal communication involves encoding a message. Explain.
  • What are the circumstances that lead to effective communication in small groups.
  • What is “ Mass Communication "and how does it differ from other types of communication?
  • In small groups, which type of communication is the best??