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Human communication. Emotional communication Speech production and comprehension Reading and writing disorders. Expressing emotion. Are there innate mechanisms? Darwin and cross-cultural evidence Ekman & Friesen, 1971: New Guinea Blind children (Izard, 1971)

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human communication

Human communication

Emotional communication

Speech production and comprehension

Reading and writing disorders

expressing emotion
Expressing emotion
  • Are there innate mechanisms?
    • Darwin and cross-cultural evidence
    • Ekman & Friesen, 1971: New Guinea
    • Blind children (Izard, 1971)
  • Does learning affect expression?
    • Emotional display rules: America & Japan
    • Sympathetic expression
    • Social facilitation: Bowling
neural basis of expression
Neural basis of expression
  • Faking or acting facial emotion
    • Duchenne’s muscle/orbicularis oculi
    • Stanislavsky’s method acting
  • The social smile of recognition
neural damage and emotional expression
Neural damage and emotional expression
  • Volitional facial paresis
    • Usually unilateral damage to primary motor cortex/connection to facial nerve motor neurons
    • No voluntary movement, normal expression
  • Emotional facial paresis
    • Usually unilateral damage to insular prefrontal cortex, frontal lobe white matter, or thalamus
    • Voluntary movement, no expression of emotion by same muscles
volitional vs emotional facial paresis
Volitional vs. emotional facial paresis

Voluntary Expression Emotional Expression

Volitional

facial paresis

Emotional

facial paresis

neural basis of expression1
Neural basis of expression
  • Right hemisphere/left face is more expressive
    • Chimerical faces
    • Wada test results
  • Right hemisphere damage impairs production and description of facial images of emotion.
  • Left hemisphere modulates emotional expression
recognizing emotion
Recognizing emotion
  • Recall the universals and social facilitation
  • Right hemisphere better at detection of emotional cues
    • Detecting strings of letters vs. facial expressions in tachistoscopic tests
    • Detecting verbal content vs. tone of voice
effects of right hemisphere damage
Effects of right hemisphere damage
  • Does not limit emotional judgments about hypothetical situations
  • Does impair emotional judgments about facial expressions and gestures
  • Limits ability to describe emotional components of imagined facial expressions of emotion.
  • Does not impair description of imagined non-emotional scenes.
specific brain regions
Specific brain regions
  • Superior temporal cortex
    • Detects direction of gaze
    • Compares input from dorsal stream to parietal cortex: location in space.
  • Amygdala lesions impair recognition of visual facial cues of fear, but not happiness or auditory cues of fear
  • Human patients with bilateral amygdala lesions lost the ability to detect warning cues in pictures of faces.
speech production and comprehension
Speech production and comprehension
  • Lateralization, damage, and the aphasias
    • Broca’s aphasia
      • Agrammatism
      • Anomia
      • Articulation difficulties
    • Cerebellar damage can cause agrammatism
wernicke s aphasia
Wernicke’s aphasia
  • Pure word deafness
    • Not visual agnosia
  • Transcortical sensory aphasia
  • Conduction aphasia
    • Damage to arcuate fasciculus
  • Anomic aphasia
other aphasias
Other aphasias
  • Transcortical motor aphasia
  • Prosodic disorders
reading and writing disorders
Reading and writing disorders
  • Alexia with agraphia: Left angular gyrus
  • Pure alexia
  • Pure agraphia
  • The dyslexias
    • Acquired and developmental dyslexias
      • Word-form or spelling dyslexia
      • Phonological dyslexia
      • Surface dyslexia
      • Deep dyslexia
      • Direct dyslexia