Biotechnology Part II. Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA
Content Standards • 5a.Students know the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein. • BI5. c. Students know how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products. • 5e.* Students know how exogenous DNA can be inserted into bacterial cells to alter their genetic makeup and support expression of new protein products.
Objectives: SWBAT • explain the structure and function of DNA, RNA, and proteins. • predict the physical characteristics of an organism based on its genetic make up. • understand the general pathway by which ribosomes make proteins. • understand how altering an organisms genetic make-up changes the proteins the organism produces.
Genetics Review • Genes code for proteins (transcription and translation) • Proteins-make-up physical characteristics • Changes in the DNA sequence will affect the genetic code (mutations) • If the genetic code is changed then a protein can be changed • This can change an organisms’ physical characteristics
How is Biotechnology a part of your life? • Medical research • Consumer products (clothing) • Forensic Science (crime scene investigation) • Maury (paternity tests) • Genetically modified foods (you eat them on a daily basis)
What is Biotechnology? • Bio=life • Technology=usage and knowledge of tools and crafts • Biotechnology- technology that uses biological systems, living organisms, or products made from living organisms to make or modify products or processes for specific use
What is genetic engineering? • Altering genes to produce a protein • Changing of an organism’s DNA to give the organism new traits • Transgenic organisms-has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome • Uses-medication and genetically modified crops
What are plasmids and restriction enzymes? • BacterialPlasmids-circular pieces of DNA, found in bacteria • Restriction enzymes-enzymes that cut DNA at specific sites • Restriction sites-sections of DNA recognized by restriction enzymes as the place to “cut” the DNA (BamH I, Hind III )
How are recombinant DNA molecules produced? • Recombinant DNA-DNA sequence that is produced from combining DNA sequences, contains more than one organisms genes • RE-used to cut out desired gene from DNA • Plasmids are cut with same RE • Plasmid opens and gene is added to plasmid • Sticky ends of DNA are bonded together (ligation)
restriction analysis of pKAN-R and pARA pKAN-R 5408 bp BamH I rfp 702 bp pARA 4058 bp Hind III BamH I Hind III 40 bp
BamH I sticky end Hind III sticky end Hind III sticky end BamH I sticky end ligation of pKAN-R/pARA restriction fragments
Summary Questions • What are some beneficial uses of transgenic organisms? • How are recombinant DNA molecules produced? (describe this process in detail)