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Giving & Receiving Feedback. Rebecca Carmichael - Psychologist Lee Oliver - Psychologist. People develop skills through: learning relevant concepts getting good quality feedback on performance reflecting constructively on feedback

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Presentation Transcript
slide3
People develop skills through:
  • learning relevant concepts
  • getting good quality feedback on performance
  • reflecting constructively on feedback
  • deciding to do something different in future to improve performance
slide4
People will be inhibited from learning from feedback if they:
  • feel unsafe
  • feel the need to defend themselves
  • are unable to see how to apply the feedback to improve performance
two dimensions to feedback1

High Support

Two dimensions to feedback

Low Challenge

High Challenge

Low Support

two dimensions to feedback2

High Support

Two dimensions to feedback

Low Challenge

High Challenge

“Good, carry on, seems to be working”

Low Support

two dimensions to feedback3

High Support

Two dimensions to feedback

Low Challenge

High Challenge

  • In passing
  • Nothing
  • Unspecific
  • Dismissive

Low Support

two dimensions to feedback4

High Support

“That was great, you’re obviously trying very hard”

Two dimensions to feedback

Low Challenge

High Challenge

Low Support

two dimensions to feedback5

High Support

  • Patronising
  • General
  • Safe

Two dimensions to feedback

Low Challenge

High Challenge

Low Support

two dimensions to feedback6

High Support

Two dimensions to feedback

Low Challenge

High Challenge

“Well that could have been done better – why did you not focus more early on”?

Low Support

two dimensions to feedback7

High Support

Two dimensions to feedback

Low Challenge

High Challenge

  • Critical
  • Induces defensiveness
  • Paralysing

Low Support

two dimensions to feedback8

High Support

“A good effort, I could see how you were drawing the feelings out – I wonder if you got to the crux of the matter”?

Two dimensions to feedback

Low Challenge

High Challenge

Low Support

two dimensions to feedback9

High Support

  • Focused
  • Attentive
  • Threatening?

Two dimensions to feedback

Low Challenge

High Challenge

Low Support

good effective feedback

High Support

High Challenge

High Support

Good Effective Feedback

Low Challenge

High Challenge

Low Support

good effective feedback1

High Support

High Challenge

“The class became rowdy because you moved too quickly between activities”

Good Effective Feedback

Is descriptive NOT evaluative or judgemental

good effective feedback2

High Support

High Challenge

“The way you moved quickly between activities seemed to unsettle the class”

Good Effective Feedback

Is descriptive NOT evaluative or judgemental

good effective feedback3

High Support

High Challenge

“The example you used to teach algebra was very practical”.

Good Effective Feedback

Is specific rather than general

good effective feedback4

High Support

High Challenge

  • Location
  • Privacy
  • Personality
  • Mood

Good Effective Feedback

Takes into account the needs of the giver and the receiver

good effective feedback5

High Support

High Challenge

Is directed towards behaviour the receiver can do something about

Good Effective Feedback

good effective feedback6

High Support

High Challenge

Good Effective Feedback

Is solicited and welcomed not imposed

good effective feedback7

High Support

High Challenge

Good Effective Feedback

Is well timed

good effective feedback8

High Support

High Challenge

Good Effective Feedback

Includes checks to ensure clarity and understanding

good effective feedback9

High Support

High Challenge

Feedback should refer to relevant performance, behaviour or outcomes, not the individual as a person. Distinguish the behaviour from the person

Good Effective Feedback

good effective feedback10

High Support

High Challenge

Good Effective Feedback

Feedback should avoid emotion-raising, “loaded” terms (this generates defensiveness)

receiving feedback with skill
Receiving Feedback with Skill
  • Practice reflective listening
  • Do not get defensive - make a mental note of disagreements
  • Paraphrase what you hear to check your perception and your assumptions
  • Ask questions for clarification and for examples where you are unsure
receiving feedback with skill1
Receiving Feedback with Skill
  • Show appreciation (thank you) and respect for the person who has been kind enough to offer feedback
  • Carefully evaluate the accuracy and potential value of what you have heard
receiving feedback with skill2
Receiving Feedback with Skill
  • Gather additional objective information from other peoples reactions
  • Do not overreact to feedback, but modify your behaviours as suggested and watch the results
ten tips for giving feedback
Ten Tips for Giving Feedback

Present perceptions, reactions and opinions as such, not as facts.

Feedback should refer to relevant performance, behaviour or outcomes, not to the individual as a person. Distinguish the behaviour from the person.

Feedback should be in terms of specific, observable behaviour (not general or global)

When feedback must be evaluative rather than descriptive, it should be in terms of established criteria.

ten tips for giving feedback1
Ten Tips for Giving Feedback

Feedback about performance should provide examples of what are “high” and “low” areas of that performance, as well as specific behaviours, which appear to be contributing ot or limiting effectiveness.

In discussing problem areas where there are established procedures or solutions, suggestions should be given on means to improve performance.

Feedback should avoid emotion-raising, “loaded” terms (this generates defensiveness)

ten tips for giving feedback2
Ten Tips for Giving Feedback

Feedback should deal with things, which the individual can control.

When encountering emotional reactions or defences, these should be dealt with as such, rather than arguing or trying to convince by logic of facts.

Feedback should be given in a way to show acceptance of the receiver as a worthwhile person and as someone who has the right to be different.

the yes and principle
The ‘Yes and’ Principle

The Art of BUT Listening

The word “BUT” acts to negate whatever it follows, so when used in reply to an idea, as “yes, but…” it relays a message that we disagree with the idea, and the word ‘yes’ is meaningless.

Compare these two phrases:

‘Thanks for your idea, but let me tell you about…’

‘Thanks for your idea, and let me tell you about..”

the yes and principle1
The ‘Yes and’ Principle

BUT – disconnects, demolishes and creates spikes.

AND – connects, builds and creates flow.

Fundamentally it is about your ability to acknowledge the validity of an expressed opinion.

slide35

Pendleton’s ‘Rules’(Pendleton D, Schofield T, Tate P, Havelock P. The New Consultation. Oxford University, 2004.)A Model for Giving and Receiving Feedback

The learner goes first and performs the activity

Questions then allowed only on points of clarification of fact

The learner then says what they thought was done well

The teacher then says what they thought was done well

The learner then says what was not done so well, and could be improved upon

The teacher then says what was not done so well and suggests ways for improvements, with discussion in a helpful and constructive manner

three stage model for giving receiving feedback
Three Stage Model for Giving & Receiving Feedback
  • What’s gone well?
    • If you start with something positive you gain their interest – they are less likely to be defensive
  • What could be improved? Look forward not back.
    • Concentrate on what there is to learn from the situation, how to avoid unwanted situations arising again.
    • “Should have’s” induce feelings of guilt and sap energy, and inhibit learning from feedback.
  • What specifically could we do differently in future?
    • Produce an action plan, identify next steps. Agree in detail who will do what differently in future.
observation versus deduction
Observation versus deduction

Separate behaviour and interpretation

Make interpretations tentative

I noticed at this stage that you moved more in your seat, and your face became red, I wondered if you might be embarrassed?

I saw you look at your watch andthought you might be bored

I saw him talking with his hand over his mouth andwondered if he was lying

phrases that show acceptance
Phrases that show acceptance:

“I like the way you handled that.”

“I like the way you tackle a problem.”

“I am glad you are pleased with it.”

“Since you are not satisfied, what do you think you can do so that you will be pleased?”

It looks as if you enjoyed that.”

How do you feel about it?”

phrases that show confidence
Phrases that show confidence:

“Because of what I know about you, I am sure you will do fine.”

“You’ll make it!”

“I have confidence in your judgement.”

“That’s a tough one and I am sure you will work it out.”

phrases that focus on contributions assets and appreciation
Phrases that focus on contributions, assets and appreciation:

“Thank you that helped a lot.”

“It was thoughtful of you to...”

“Thanks, I really appreciate..., it makes my job that much easier.”

“I need your help on...”

“I really enjoyed today. Thank you.”

phrases that recognise effort and improvement
Phrases that recognise effort and improvement:

“You have skill in... Would you consider showing others how to...”

“It looks as if you really worked hard on that.”

“From your results, you must have spent a lot of time thinking that through.”

“I see that you are moving right along with your project.”

“You may not have reached the goal you set for yourself, but look how far you have come.” (Be specific as you identify how).