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JOURNAL #27 12/17/07. Do you have a history of disease in your family? If so, name and define the diseases present in your family. If you do not have a history of disease in your family, name and define 2 examples of noncommunicable diseases. Non-Communicable Diseases. Health 10

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journal 27 12 17 07

JOURNAL #27 12/17/07

Do you have a history of disease in your family? If so, name and define the diseases present in your family.

If you do not have a history of disease in your family, name and define 2 examples of noncommunicable diseases.

non communicable diseases

Non-Communicable Diseases

Health 10

December 17, 2007

noncommunicable diseases
  • Noncommunicable diseases are not caused by pathogens. They cannot be transmitted by contact with a person, object, or substance.
  • Risk factors increase the likelihood of getting a disease.
  • 3 TYPES of risk factors
    • Genetic risk factors
    • Environmental risk factors
    • Life-style risk factors.
risk factors
  • Genetic risk factors are inherited and are under control of genes. Congenital disease is present at birth.
  • Environmental risk factors originate in your environment or surroundings, not your body. Harmful substances in the air you breath or anything you eat, drink, or touch.

Examples: Polluted air, cigarette smoke, alcohol, unhealthful foods, and toxic fumes.

  • Life-style risk factors cause more than 50% of illness. Harmful behaviors or habits. Examples: using tobacco products, drinking alcohol, taking harmful drugs, overeating, not getting enough sleep.
cardiovascular disease
  • Diseases of the heart and blood vessels are called cardiovascular disease. In the U.S. almost one out of every two people will develop cardiovascular disease. The safest way to prevent cardiovascular disease is to change your lifestyle.
  • Three types of heart disease
      • High blood pressure
      • Atherosclerosis
      • Heart attack
high blood pressure
High Blood Pressure
  • A Hypertension is often called a silent killer because you can have it for years without knowing it. There are no signs or symptoms.
  • Blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries.
  • Hypertension is a major risk factor for other types of CVDs.
  • High blood pressure can be lowered with medication, proper nutrition, and adequate physical activity.
2 atherosclerosis
2. Atherosclerosis
  • Fatty substances in the blood, called plaques, build up on artery walls causing the arteries to thicken and lose their elasticity.
  • The process when

plaque accumulates

on the artery walls

is called atherosclerosis.

  • The buildup is due mainly to food choices. Specifically a high intake of saturated fats and cholesterol. Tobacco smoke can also cause this.
diseases of the heart
Diseases of the Heart
  • Angina Pectoris – chest pain that results when the heart does not get enough oxygen. A warning sign that the heart is temporarily not getting enough blood.
  • Arrhythmias – irregular heartbeat. The heart may skip a beat or beat irregularly, very quickly or very slowly. This is very common.
  • Heart attack – damage to the heart muscle caused by a reduced or blocked blood supply.
  • Congestive heart failure – the heart gradually weakens and cannot maintain its regular pumping rate and force.

In the U.S. the 2nd leading cause of

death is cancer. Cancer is the name

given to the many diseases caused by

rapid, uncontrolled growth and spread

of abnormal cells. Cancer cells often

form a mass of tissue called a malignant tumor.

The spread of cancer from where it first develops to other parts of

the body is called metastasis. Treatments for cancer include

radiation therapy, shrinking of the tumor; chemotherapy,

drug therapy to fight cell production, and/or surgery,

removal of the tumor (when possible).

types of cancer
Types of Cancer
  • LYMPHOMAS - Cancers of the Immune System.
  • LEUKEMIA - Cancers of the blood-forming organs. Including bone marrow.
  • CARCINOMAS - Cancers of the glands and body linings, including the skin and linings of the digestive tract and lungs.
  • SARCOMAS -Cancers of the connective tissues, including bones, ligaments, and muscles.
a word of caution about cancer
A Word of CAUTION About Cancer
  • Change in bowel habits
  • A sore that does not heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge (bladder, bowels, or with coughing)
  • Thickening or a lump
  • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
  • Obvious change in a wart or mole
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness

** Fatigue and unexplained weight loss may be other symptoms.


A stroke occurs when the bloodsupply to a part of your brain is interrupted or severely reduced and brain tissue is deprived of oxygen and nutrients. Stroke can also occur as a result of cerebral hemorrhage, where a blood vessel in the brain bursts, causing blood to spread into surrounding brain tissue.

  • A TIA, transient ischemic attack is a temporary interruption of blood flow to a part of your brain. The signs and symptoms of TIA are the same as for a stroke, but they appear for a shorter period and then disappear, without leaving apparent permanent effects.
Facial weakness - can the person smile? Has their mouth or eye(s) drooped?Arm weakness - can the person raise both arms?Speech difficulty - can the person speak clearly and understand what you say?Time to act fast - seek medical attention immediately

Diabetes is a disease in which the body's production and

use of insulin is impaired, causing sugar to build up in

the bloodstream. Diabetes affects the way body cells

convert food into energy.

Types of Diabetes

  • Type 1 – The body does not

produce insulin, and glucose

builds up in the blood, starving cells of the energy they need. Patients need dailydoses of insulin.

  • Type 2 – The body is unable to make enough insulin or use insulin properly. Treatment includes weight management and regular physical activity.
symptoms of diabetes
Symptoms of Diabetes
  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Extreme hunger
  • Sudden vision changes
  • Tingling in hands or feet
  • Frequent fatigue
  • Very dry skin
  • Sores that are slow to heal
  • A specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance.
  • Pollen, food, dusts, mold, chemicals, insect venom, and medicines are some of the more common allergens.
  • Avoiding the allergens and medicines such as antihistamines treat allergies.
  • An inflammatory condition in which the small airways in the lungs become narrowed, causing difficult in breathing.
  • Common asthma triggers include air pollution, pet dander, and tobacco smoke.

In an asthma attack, the muscles of the bronchial walls tighten and produce extra mucus. The respiratory passages narrow.

family history project guidelines
Family History Project Guidelines
  • Create a FAMILY TREE on poster board through your great-grandparents on both sides of the family. You must include yourself and the names of your:
      • Parents;
      • Siblings;
      • Grandparents; and,
      • Great-grandparents.
  • If you choose, the tree can go laterally to aunts, uncles, and cousins.

** Note: The more relatives you include the better idea you will have of what medical conditions you may be at risk of developing.

  • Under EACH relative, list:
      • All medical conditions/diseases that he/she has;
      • Birth dates; and,
      • Death dates (if applicable).

** IF you don’t know something, write “unknown”.