FIRST AID. A.C.DHANA SEKAR . B.Sc., M.A., CPR SPECIALIST. ABC in FIRST AID. ABC in FIRST AID. ABC in FIRST AID. BLEEDING & BLOOD CLOT . Apply direct pressure to the wound (at this time a direct pressure bandage may be used) Elevate (do not further harm)
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FIRST AID A.C.DHANA SEKAR. B.Sc., M.A., CPR SPECIALIST
BLEEDING & BLOOD CLOT • Apply direct pressureto the wound (at this time a direct pressure bandage may be used) • Elevate(do not further harm) • Pressure Point additional pressure may be applied to a pressure point to help reduce bleeding.
BLOOD CLOTTING Formation of Prothrombinase Prothrombinase can be formed in two ways, depending of which of two "systems" or "pathways" apply. These are Intrinsic System This is initiated by liquid blood making contact with a foreign surface, i.e. something that is not part of the body; or
BLOOD CLOTTING • Extrinsic System • This is initiated by liquid blood making contact with damaged tissue. Both the intrinsic and the extrinsic systems involve interactions between coagulation factors. These coagulation factors have individual names but are often referred to by a standardised set of Roman Numerals, e.g. Factor VIII (antihaemophilic factor), Factor IX (Christmas factor).
BLOOD CLOTTING • Prothrombin converted into the enzyme Thrombin • Prothrombinase (formed in stage 1.) converts prothrombin, which is a plasma protein that is formed in the liver, into the enzyme thrombin.
BLOOD CLOTTING • Fibrinogen (soluble) converted to Fibrin (insoluble) • In turn, thrombin converts fibrinogen (which is also a plasma protein synthesized in the liver) into fibrin. • Fibrin is insoluble and forms the threads that bind the clot.
ELECTRICITY SHOCK • Keep the victim laying down (if possible). • Elevate legs 10-12 inches… unless you suspect a spinal injury or broken bones. • Cover the victim to maintain body temperature. • Provide the victim with plenty of fresh air. • If victim begins to vomit - place them on their left side..
First aid for Electric shock Do not touch a person who is still in contact with electric wire! This may cause your death as well as his. The person should be removed from electric contact as quickly as possible. This may be accomplished by cutting off the current that is going to the patient or by disconnecting the patient from the wire contact by use of a dry stick or rope that is thrown around him. An axe may be available to cut the wire that is causing the contact with the patient. When using an axe, be sure that your hands are dry and that the wood handle of the axe is dry.
TYPE OF TREATMENT • Artificial respiration should be instituted as soon as possible. • The patient should be kept quiet and warm and supplied with oxygen if this is available. • The burn area, which is often present at the site of contact, must be treated in the same manner as any burn.
SYMPTOMS OF SHOCK • There may or may not be loss of consciousness. • The skin become a dull gray color and is cold and clammy to the touch. • The patient’s body is covered with a fine perspiration. • The pulse is weak and rapid. • The pupils of the eyes are dilated. • Respirations are rapid and shallow. • The patient is apprehensive and complains of weakness and thirst.
FIRST AID FOR SPRAINS AND STRAINSI-C-E • I - Ice, apply a cold pack. Do not apply ice directly to skin. • C - Compress, use an elastic or conforming wrap - not too tight. • E - Elevate, above heart level to control internal bleeding.
CARE FOR DISLOCATIONS AND FRACTURESI-A-C-T • I - Immobilizearea. Use pillows, jackets, blankets, etc. Stop any movement by supporting injured area. • A - ActivateEmergency Medical Services (EMS). • C - Carefor shock. See “Care for Shock” slide. • T - Treatany additional secondary injuries.
POISONING • Assess the scene for clues and safety. • Get victim away from poison if necessary. • Provide care for any life threatening conditions. • Check Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). • Notify medical staff or on-call Doctor. • Call the Poison Control Center
FIRST AID FOR BURNS
FIRST AID Electric Shock • What to do: • Switch off the main switch. • Break the contact between electrical source and patient sing dry non-conductive object like wooden stick. • Call for help. • If breathing and heartbeat has stopped begin C.P.R • If breathing, but unconscious : Recovery Position • Treat any Burns • Treat for Shock
Smoke Inhalation • Remove the person with smoke inhalation from the scene to a location with clean air. • Make sure that you are not putting yourself in danger before you attempt to pull someone from a smoke-filled environment. If you would be taking a serious risk to help the person, wait for trained professionals to arrive at the scene. • If necessary, CPR should be initiated by trained bystanders until emergency medical help arrives.
Recovery Position • What to do: • Place the patient on their back. • Lift the chin to ensure the airway is open. • Patient's arm on your side should be positioned so as to make a right angle with his body, with elbow bent and palm facing out.
Recovery Position • Patient's other arm on opposite side should be placed across the chest, with back of their hand against the cheek on your side of the patient. • Pull up the patient's knee joint (side away from you) as it bends with the foot flat on the ground. • Roll over the patient in this position towards your side. • By tilting the patient's head back ensure that the airway is open. • The uppermost leg should be adjusted in such a way that the hip and knee are at right angles.
Heart Attacks • Angina / Heart Attack • Due to inadequate blood supply to the heart. • Major killer all over the world • Speedy treatment and admission to hospital is vital for a positive outcome
Heart Attacks • Identification / look out for : • Continuous crushing / constricting pain of the chest (more on left side)may even appear at rest. • Possible pain to left arm, left shoulder, jaw and back, but not always. • Nausea / vomiting. • Perspiration. • Feeling of impending doom / death. • Difficulty in breathing. • Faintness and dizziness. • Cold clammy skin. • Ashen colored face (pale). • Pale skin and blue discoloration of skin. • Initially rapid pulse which weakens • Sudden collapse • Shock.
Heart Attacks • Make the patient sit down in a comfortable position - Half Sitting using pillows as support. • If patient has to be shifted / moved do not make the patient exert - carry the patient with full support. • Call 108 for Cardiac Ambulance without delay even though they may object. • Monitor closely, reassure, allow patient to take their own prescribed cardiac medication if they have previous history • Be prepared to perform CPR should they become unresponsive. • Do not: • Make the patient exert physically not even a few steps, as it will further deteriorate their condition. • Allow the person to continue with medical help, it may save their life
First Aid – (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) • 1. CALLCheck the victim for unresponsiveness. If there is no response, Call 108 and return to the victim. In most locations the emergency dispatcher can assist you with CPR instructions.
First Aid - CPR • 2. BLOW Tilt the head back and listen for breathing. If not breathing normally, pinch nose and cover the mouth with yours and blow until you see the chest rise. Give 2 breaths. Each breath should take 1 seconds.
First Aid - CPR • 3. PUMP If the victim is still not breathing normally, coughing or moving, begin chest compressions. Push down on the chest 11/2 to 2 inches 30 times right between the nipples. Pump at the rate of 100/minute, faster than once per second. CONTINUE WITH 2 BREATHS AND 30 PUMPS UNTIL HELP ARRIVES
IMMEDIATE ATTENTION • ACT FASTER TO SAVE LIVES…….. • IT IS EVERYBODY”S BUSINESS…. • DO FIRST AID WITH THE TRAINED PERSONNEL. • EDUCATE AND MAKE THEM AWARE WHY IS IT NEEDED • CONSULT DOCTOR IMMEDIATELY AFTER FIRST AID CREATE CONFIDENCE WITH PATIENT & PUBLIC.
COOL • ANY QUESTIONS ?...... CALL ME @ 09840942169 A C DHANASEKAR AT ANY TIME FOR EMERGENCIES. WRITE TO ME @firstname.lastname@example.org