Human Motivation Chapter 1 Themes in the Study of Motivation
What causes behavior? Motivation theorists • Assume that for every behavior, there is cause • Goal is to identify those causes • Tend to be eclectic • Want to know what instigates behavior • Biology, learning, cognition o
Approach and Avoidant Causes • Biological basis for approach/avoidant behavior • Individual differences may be a result of inherited amounts of each system Temperament: we approach life with a particular orientation that can affect everything we do and say Dual nature: we are often being pulled in two directions (moves us forward or stops us in our tracks)
Approach Causes People do things because of something they want, desire, or need Example: People eat because they are hungry. Sometimes the want, desire, or need does not immediately give rise to a specific goal object Avoidant Causes People do things to avoid something Example: People who have anxiety at a party may leave the party. These things are not only aversive/noxious, they are also difficult/impossible to ignore Approach and Avoidant Causes
Eight Basic Themes of Contemporary Motivation Theories • Behavior represents an attempt to adapt to the environment • Importance of determining what arouses/energizes behavior • Understanding what governs the direction of behavior • Need theory: needs are what give direction to behavior • Goal theory: goals create a tension, and the individuals move toward the goals to reduce that tension • Understand persistence • One of the main predictors of success; grows out of intrinsic motivation • Reward theory: we are inclined to repeat behaviors that make us feel good (positive reinforcement) and discontinue behaviors that make us feel bad (negative reinforcement)
Eight Basic Themes of Contemporary Motivation Theories • Understanding the role of emotions • Affect theory: people approach things to experience positive affect and avoid things to guard against experiencing negative affect • Feelings are important determinants of behavior • Accounting for individual differences • Motivation theorists are interested in why individuals behave the way they do (biology, cognitions, learning) • Self-regulation of behavior • Learning to set attainable goals, manage negative emotions, focus attention; tendency to engage in planning • Motivational principles are the underlying reasons people self-regulate/achieve/take control • Humans have will (people can create their own destiny) • People are not mere products of biology or the environment
Theories of Motivation Instinct theories: animals tend to behave adaptively; instincts provide the energy, direction, and persistence of behavior Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) Humans have a dual nature- physical vs. nonphysical; body vs. mind Humans- equipped with soul/rational thought Animals- instincts cause behavior René Descartes (1596-1650) The body and the mind (will, soul) interact (at the pineal gland) Humans could be held responsible for their moral actions William McDougall (1871-1938) Emotions give rise to instincts; shifted focus of understanding behavior to motivational constructs Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Instincts viewed as an energy source, with the direction of behavior subject to some of the principles of learning and cognitions (libido)
Theories of Motivation Evolutionary theory: members of a species with physical or behavioral attributes allow them to better deal with environmental pressures would survive and reproduce passing along this biological structure Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Behavior of animals and humans is caused by their underlying biology Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Advanced idea of genetics
Theories of Motivation Need theory: energy, direction, and persistence of behavior are due to the existence of needs Henry Murray (1893-1988) Humans can be characterized by a limited set of (psychological) needs; the Thematic Apperception Test was developed to measure these psychological needs Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Hierarchy of needs (most basic (biological) needs met before moving up towards self-actualization) Five Basic Personality Measures: extraversion (positive emotionality), neuroticism (negative emotionality), agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience (intellect)
Theories of Motivation Learning theory: belief that behavior could be better explained by principles of learning than by instinct John B. Watson (1878-1952) (School of Behaviorism) Concluded that there were only three innate emotional reactions: fear, rage, and love. Clark Hull (1884-1952) (Drive theory) Energy for behavior is the result of drives; behavior is caused by the multiplicative effect of drives times habit (Behavior = Drives x Habits) B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) (Reinforcement Theory) Behavior can be learned even if there is no biological drive reduction Behavior modification: altering behavior based on the systematic applications of rewards
Theories of Motivation Growth motivation theories: animals need to learn how to successfully interact with their environment; animals explore their environment to gain mastery over it • Mechanism that motivates growth and mastery is the discrepancy between where the individual is and where the individual needs to be to successfully adapt to the environment (tension) • Mastery- idea that humans need to process information and acquire skills
Theories of Motivation Humanistic theory: humans are basically good and possess an innate (biological) tendency to grow and mature Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Organisms have one basic tendency- to “actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing self.” • Organismic valuation process- people have within themselves the capacity to judge what is good for them and what is not • Need to positive regard- the need to receive approval, to be accepted, and to be loved • Positive self-regard- internalized positive regard, helps in realizing potential
Theories of Motivation Cognitive theory: mental representations formed by humans and animals play a central role in guiding their behavior • Roots in work done by learning, personality, and developmental theorists.
Theories of Motivation Expectancy-value theory: people have expectations about whether they are likely to attain particular goals; people will choose the option with the best combination of expectancy and value. • Also called cognitive-choice or decision theories. Expectancy- a judgment about the likely outcome of some behavior based on past experiences
Theories of Motivation Goal-setting theory: humans can motivate themselves by setting future goals • Goals should be both difficult and specific • Unless we are committed to our goals, we will not put forth effort to achieve them. Goals effect behavior in four ways: • They direct attention • They mobilize effort to the task. • They encourage persistence. • They facilitate the development of strategies.
Theories of Motivation Social-cognitive theory of goal setting: people set specific attainable goals based on their feelings of self-efficacy Self-efficacy: expectations that focus on their beliefs about their capabilities to organize and execute the behaviors requisite for attaining the outcome