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Human Motivation

Human Motivation

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Human Motivation

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  1. Human Motivation Chapter 1 Themes in the Study of Motivation

  2. What causes behavior? Motivation theorists • Assume that for every behavior, there is cause • Goal is to identify those causes • Tend to be eclectic • Want to know what instigates behavior • Biology, learning, cognition o

  3. Approach and Avoidant Causes • Biological basis for approach/avoidant behavior • Individual differences may be a result of inherited amounts of each system Temperament: we approach life with a particular orientation that can affect everything we do and say Dual nature: we are often being pulled in two directions (moves us forward or stops us in our tracks)

  4. Approach Causes People do things because of something they want, desire, or need Example: People eat because they are hungry. Sometimes the want, desire, or need does not immediately give rise to a specific goal object Avoidant Causes People do things to avoid something Example: People who have anxiety at a party may leave the party. These things are not only aversive/noxious, they are also difficult/impossible to ignore Approach and Avoidant Causes

  5. Eight Basic Themes of Contemporary Motivation Theories • Behavior represents an attempt to adapt to the environment • Importance of determining what arouses/energizes behavior • Understanding what governs the direction of behavior • Need theory: needs are what give direction to behavior • Goal theory: goals create a tension, and the individuals move toward the goals to reduce that tension • Understand persistence • One of the main predictors of success; grows out of intrinsic motivation • Reward theory: we are inclined to repeat behaviors that make us feel good (positive reinforcement) and discontinue behaviors that make us feel bad (negative reinforcement)

  6. Eight Basic Themes of Contemporary Motivation Theories • Understanding the role of emotions • Affect theory: people approach things to experience positive affect and avoid things to guard against experiencing negative affect • Feelings are important determinants of behavior • Accounting for individual differences • Motivation theorists are interested in why individuals behave the way they do (biology, cognitions, learning) • Self-regulation of behavior • Learning to set attainable goals, manage negative emotions, focus attention; tendency to engage in planning • Motivational principles are the underlying reasons people self-regulate/achieve/take control • Humans have will (people can create their own destiny) • People are not mere products of biology or the environment

  7. Theories of Motivation Instinct theories: animals tend to behave adaptively; instincts provide the energy, direction, and persistence of behavior Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) Humans have a dual nature- physical vs. nonphysical; body vs. mind Humans- equipped with soul/rational thought Animals- instincts cause behavior René Descartes (1596-1650) The body and the mind (will, soul) interact (at the pineal gland) Humans could be held responsible for their moral actions William McDougall (1871-1938) Emotions give rise to instincts; shifted focus of understanding behavior to motivational constructs Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Instincts viewed as an energy source, with the direction of behavior subject to some of the principles of learning and cognitions (libido)

  8. Theories of Motivation Evolutionary theory: members of a species with physical or behavioral attributes allow them to better deal with environmental pressures would survive and reproduce passing along this biological structure Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Behavior of animals and humans is caused by their underlying biology Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Advanced idea of genetics

  9. Theories of Motivation Need theory: energy, direction, and persistence of behavior are due to the existence of needs Henry Murray (1893-1988) Humans can be characterized by a limited set of (psychological) needs; the Thematic Apperception Test was developed to measure these psychological needs Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Hierarchy of needs (most basic (biological) needs met before moving up towards self-actualization) Five Basic Personality Measures: extraversion (positive emotionality), neuroticism (negative emotionality), agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience (intellect)

  10. Theories of Motivation Learning theory: belief that behavior could be better explained by principles of learning than by instinct John B. Watson (1878-1952) (School of Behaviorism) Concluded that there were only three innate emotional reactions: fear, rage, and love. Clark Hull (1884-1952) (Drive theory) Energy for behavior is the result of drives; behavior is caused by the multiplicative effect of drives times habit (Behavior = Drives x Habits) B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) (Reinforcement Theory) Behavior can be learned even if there is no biological drive reduction Behavior modification: altering behavior based on the systematic applications of rewards

  11. Theories of Motivation Growth motivation theories: animals need to learn how to successfully interact with their environment; animals explore their environment to gain mastery over it • Mechanism that motivates growth and mastery is the discrepancy between where the individual is and where the individual needs to be to successfully adapt to the environment (tension) • Mastery- idea that humans need to process information and acquire skills

  12. Theories of Motivation Humanistic theory: humans are basically good and possess an innate (biological) tendency to grow and mature Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Organisms have one basic tendency- to “actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing self.” • Organismic valuation process- people have within themselves the capacity to judge what is good for them and what is not • Need to positive regard- the need to receive approval, to be accepted, and to be loved • Positive self-regard- internalized positive regard, helps in realizing potential

  13. Theories of Motivation Cognitive theory: mental representations formed by humans and animals play a central role in guiding their behavior • Roots in work done by learning, personality, and developmental theorists.

  14. Theories of Motivation Expectancy-value theory: people have expectations about whether they are likely to attain particular goals; people will choose the option with the best combination of expectancy and value. • Also called cognitive-choice or decision theories. Expectancy- a judgment about the likely outcome of some behavior based on past experiences

  15. Theories of Motivation Goal-setting theory: humans can motivate themselves by setting future goals • Goals should be both difficult and specific • Unless we are committed to our goals, we will not put forth effort to achieve them. Goals effect behavior in four ways: • They direct attention • They mobilize effort to the task. • They encourage persistence. • They facilitate the development of strategies.

  16. Theories of Motivation Social-cognitive theory of goal setting: people set specific attainable goals based on their feelings of self-efficacy Self-efficacy: expectations that focus on their beliefs about their capabilities to organize and execute the behaviors requisite for attaining the outcome