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The Scopes “Monkey” Trial

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  1. The Scopes “Monkey” Trial • Cities drew thousands from farms & small towns • Those who stayed rural areas often feared that new ways of life in the city were a threat to traditional values • Darwin’s Theory of Evolution: Charles Darwin – British scientist, had claimed that all life had evolved, or developed, from simpler forms over a long period of time VS

  2. Some churches condemned his theory, saying it denied teachings in the Bible • Some states banned the teachings of his theory • 1925- John Scopes (biology teacher in Dayton) taught evolution to his class.

  3. Scopes was arrested & brought to trial • William Jennings Bryan (who had run for president) spoke for the state against Scopes • Clarence Darrow (Chicago lawyer known for helping unions & radicals) defended Scopes • Scopes was convicted & fined • Laws against teaching evolution remain on the books, though they are rarely enforced

  4. 1915 the KKK begins to crop up again • Originally, the clan had used terror to keep African Americans from voting after the Civil War • New Klan’s aim: to preserve the U.S. for white, native-born Protestants

  5. KKK • Waged a campaign against blacks, immigrants, Catholics & Jews • Burned crosses outside of people’s homes • Whippings & lynchings to terrorize immigrants & blacks • Strongly supported efforts to limit immigration • Such a large membership = gained political influence

  6. Racial Tensions in the North • African Americans had hoped that their efforts abroad in WW1 would weaken racism at home • Returning black soldiers found the South was still segregated & racism was big in the North • African Americans moved north during & after the war

  7. African Americans moved north during & after the war • Factory jobs in cities • Often the only jobs were low-paying ones • Whites refused to rent apartments to blacks • Northern white homeowners & workers felt threatened by the arrival of so many African Americans • Racial tension grew • 8 months after WW1, race riots broke out in several cities • The worst: Chicago, leaving 38 dead

  8. Marcus Garvey • African Americans were shocked by the racism they found & looked for new ways to cope • Marcus Garvey: one of the most popular black leaders of the 1920s who started the first widespread Black Nationalist movement in the U.S. • Organized the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA): intended to promote unity & pride among African Americans

  9. Believed blacks needed to rely on themselves rather than whites to get ahead “Back to Africa Movement”: Garvey urged African Americans to seek their roots in Africa to regain racial pride

  10. Election of 1928 • By 1928 Republicans had led the nation for 8 years • They pointed to their prosperity as their outstanding achievement • Herbert Hoover wins the Republican nomination (against Alfred Smith (D))

  11. Election of 1928 • Hoover was a self-made millionaire from the Midwest • Won votes from rural Americans & big business alike • American hoped Hoover would keep the country prosperous • Less than a year after he becomes president, the economy would come crashing down