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Recent Challenges of Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Vehicles. Presented by Kareem El-Aswad on 12/4/2012 Article & Research by D. Mori & K. Hirose. Some Background Information…. Carbon emissions from factories and vehicles have harmed the environment in recent years.

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recent challenges of hydrogen storage technologies for fuel cell vehicles

Recent Challenges of Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Vehicles

Presented by Kareem El-Aswad on 12/4/2012

Article & Research by D. Mori & K. Hirose

some background information
Some Background Information…
  • Carbon emissions from factories and vehicles have harmed the environment in recent years.
  • Excessive Amounts of energy consumption in gasoline (very inefficient energy output).
  • Mobility requirements will increase in the future; therefore energy sources must be safe and clean.
  • Due to these requirements, and the fact that relatively clean Hydrogen gas can be used, fuel cell technologies are an ideal solution!
  • However…
two major problems
Two Major Problems!
  • Hydrogen gas (H2) has an extremely low density; thus limiting how much can be stored in a vehicle.
  • Hydrogen gas only has 1/10th the energy as gasoline; which limits how far a vehicle can travel.
  • Therefore, efficiency and the amount of storable hydrogen must be increased.
  • However, since all of the hydrogen can’t be stored, it is required to either compress hydrogen gas or to absorb it into a form of solid material.
potential solution
Potential Solution
  • A new tank design that allows for maximum hydrogen gas efficiency must consider all the following:
  • Material Density
  • Heat Conductivity
  • Volumetric Change
  • Heat Absorption
  • Gravimetric Density
  • Hydrogen Uptake
potential solution1
Potential Solution
  • A new vehicle must consider the following:
  • Safety
  • Performance
  • Cost
  • Technical adaptation
  • Scalability
methods
Methods
  • Three Main Proposals

were tested & a hybrid was created using the following as a basis:

  • High-Pressure Tank System
  • Liquid Hydrogen Tank
  • Hydrogen-Absorbing Alloy Tank
high pressure tank system
High-Pressure Tank System
  • Most common tank used for on-road testing currently.
  • Pressurized at 35-70 MPa; although there is a tendency to use 70MPa so that more hydrogen gas is carried.
  • Simple structure; easy to charge / discharge.
high pressure tank system1
High-Pressure Tank System
  • Uses V3 & V4 types of tanks. Natural gas tanks use V1 & V2.
  • GFRP = Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer.
  • CFRP = Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer.
  • CFRP is required in

higher pressure tanks

because it’s much

stronger and more

resilient.

high pressure tank system2
High-Pressure Tank System
  • Problems include:
  • Pressure & hydrogen volume is non-linear. Doubling pressure only increase volume by 40-50%.
  • Weight of the tank is still relatively heavy. Further testing for tank durability is required to make a lighter tank.
  • Volume of the tank can’t be shrunken down even further due to physical properties (i.e. dramatic increase in pressure & lower vehicle range).
liquid hydrogen tank
Liquid Hydrogen Tank
  • At 20K (-253.15oC), hydrogen becomes a liquid.
  • Capable of storing much more hydrogen due to significantly higher density than gaseous hydrogen.
  • Liquids are potentially easier to handle and store.
  • Tanks require a double wall to keep low temperatures insulated.
  • Vacuum Multi-Layered

Insulation (MLI) is used

to prevent radiation and

thermal intrustion.

hydrogen absorbing alloy tank
Hydrogen-Absorbing Alloy Tank
  • Can utilize smallest tank size since it can store hydrogen more dense than liquid hydrogen.
  • Absorbs up to 2.8% hydrogen.
  • Reversible hydrogen charge and discharge capacities.
  • Several critical issues:
  • Low gravimetric density (% of hydrogen).
  • Can’t handle large amount of heat.
  • Inefficient hydrogen release in colder environments.
  • Still largely in the experimental phase. Optimal materials have not even been determined yet, although various metal alloys are primarily used.
the hybrid containment system
The Hybrid Containment System
  • Designed to improve charge-discharge variables.
  • 4x45L high-pressure tanks combined with high-pressure absorptive alloys (promotes high volumetric density) which absorbs 1.9% hydrogen.
  • Metal hydride (Ti1.1CrMn) used.
  • Cooling system (radiator or fan)
results
Results
  • 7.3 kg of hydrogen stored @ 35 MPa; 2.5x more than a typical 35 MPa tank.
  • Can be charged with hydrogen up to 80% in 5 min.
  • At -30oC, still capable of supplying hydrogen.
  • Can actually be applied to a

vehicle(i.e. size and

performance)

results1
Results
  • High-pressure hydrogen environment allows MH to absorb hydrogen quickly.
  • This solves the issues with classical metal hydrides and creates a method of hydrogen storage for vehicles.
results2
Results
  • Comparison of high-pressure tank, hydrogen-absorbing alloy tank and high-pressure hydrogen-absorbing alloy tank system as follows:
discussion
Discussion
  • Hybrid Containment is an effective hybrid of the simpler containment systems mentioned previously.
  • There is a noted relationship between hydrogen uptake and ΔH, energy to

take out hydrogen from

hydride; but no concrete

theory for this relationship.

possible future goals
Possible Future Goals
  • To reach a 4% absorption rate
  • To open the possibilities for other chemical containment methods.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Very thoroughly well-thought out.
  • Many different ideas and proposals were considered.
  • Reservations:
  • They should’ve used 70MPa, since that’s the most used for hydrogen gas fuel cells.
  • Using a more efficient cooling system probably could have speeded the hydrogen charge capacity even more.
references
References
  • D. Mori & K. Hirose. “Recent Challenges of Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Vehicles" International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 34 (2009): Pages 4569-4574.
  • “Why CFRP?” Composites World. 30 Nov 2010. Composites Technology. 2 Dec. 2012

< http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/why-cfrp>

  • “GFRP – Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer.” Stromberg. 2 Dec. 2012

< http://strombergarchitectural.com/materials/gfrp>