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Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles. Robert Thomas Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School IIT Research Mentor: Donald Chmielewski.

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hybrid fuel cell vehicles

Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

Robert Thomas

Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School

IIT Research Mentor: Donald Chmielewski

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. EEC-0502174. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

hybrid fuel cell battery powered vehicles overview
Hybrid Fuel Cell/Battery Powered VehiclesOverview
  • High School Chemistry/Physics/Physical Science
  • Objectives
    • Differentiate between hybrid electric and hybrid fuel cell
    • Learn dynamics of automotive vehicle
    • Use Problem Based Learning trade-off analysis of:
      • Vehicle forces
      • Energy storage device weight, cost, energy output
      • Hydrogen fuel cell/energy storage materials and utilization
    • design a consumer accepted hybrid fuel cell vehicle to meet all government regulations
timeframes based on scenario
Timeframes based on scenario
  • Choice A: Physics only
    • 2 days research on problem, 1 day presentations
  • Choice B: Chemistry only
    • 2 days research on problem, 1 day presentations
  • Choice C: Physics/Chemistry
    • 2 days each research on problem
    • 1 day coordination between physics and chemistry groups
    • 1 day presentations
  • Choice D: Physical Science
    • 2 days research on simplified physics or chemistry problem
    • 1 day presentations
late high school illinois learning standards
Late High School Illinois Learning Standards
  • 11.A.5a Formulate hypotheses referencing prior research and knowledge
  • 11.A.5d Apply statistical methods to make predictions and to test the accuracy of results.
  • 11.B.5a Identify a design problem that has practical applications and propose solutions.
  • 12.D.5a Analyze factors that influence the relative motion of an object
  • 12.C.5b Analyze the properties of materials
why solve this problem
Why solve this problem?
  • Minimal pollution
    • Minimize hazardous by-products
    • Provide efficient refueling options
  • Low health risk
    • Minimize exposure to hazardous by-products
    • Minimize toxicity of by-products
  • Reduce use of fossil fuels
    • Renewable fuels
    • Higher efficiency
engineering and ethics
Engineering and ethics
  • ASME Fundamental Canon on safety
    • Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public …
  • Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association COE
    • Be active in the advancement of the technology …. so as to improve the environment through reduced hydrocarbon emissions pollution, and to aid in the conservation of fuel resources.
  • Canon of Ethics for cost engineers
    • Will be honest and impartial, and will serve employer, clients, and the public with devotion
ethics and you
Ethics and you
  • Statement on Integrity in Science

1) No plagiarism or unauthorized use of original material

2) fabrication of data or selective reporting of results

3) submission of the same paper or trivial variations thereof

  • This applies to research we are doing as well as school work you are doing this fall!
historical perspective
Historical Perspective
  • 1970’s lunar rover
  • 1980’s GM created the EV1
  • Early 1990’s Dodge and Ford prototypes
  • Late 1990’s Toyota and Honda Hybrids
  • 2000’s hybrid fuel cell/battery prototypes
  • Fuel cell overview
background material
Background material
  • Aerodynamic drag opposing vehicle movement
  • Rolling resistance moment of inertia
  • Gravity = 9.8 m/s
  • Normal force
  • Motor Torque
  • Acceleration = Σ Forces / Mass
  • Driving scenarios using city/urban driving
physics example increase vehicle performance
Physics Example – increase vehicle performance
  • Reduce vehicle resistance by minimizing:
    • Frontal area = width x height
    • Aerodynamic Drag by vehicle body design
    • Rolling resistance by wheel selection
  • Minimize weight of :
    • Energy storage based on Lead acid, Nickel Metal Hydride, Li ion batteries, capacitor
    • Fuel cell based on energy needed
  • Properly matched transmission
    • Matching motor torque to wheel radius
chemistry example choosing a hydrogen fuel cell
Chemistry Example - Choosing a hydrogen fuel cell
  • Fuel cell Energy output versus
    • Number of cells and weight of each cell
    • Hydrogen / air flow
    • Fuel cell temperature
  • Energy storage output versus weight
    • Lead acid, nickel metal hydride, lithium ion batteries, capacitor
    • Differences between energy and power
design project
Design Project
  • Using data on tradeoffs, design an affordable car you want to drive to be:
    • Commercially viable
    • Consumer accepted
    • Virtually pollution and health hazard free
  • Using the pieces provided, propose solution for:
    • Mechanically efficient vehicle
    • Environmentally friendly power plant
    • Performance for all driving conditions
day 1 physics activity aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance
Day 1 Physics activity - aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance

Rolling resistance opposes vehicle movement

  • Raise one end of cardboard platform ¼ inch
  • 1 by 1, put 6 matchbox cars at top of ramp
  • Put aside any cars that do not roll down ramp

Drag altered by vehicle shape & front vehicle area

  • make wind tunnel with fan, cardboard boxes, duct tape
  • Working in groups of 3/4, try remaining matchbox cars in wind tunnel and determine least aerodynamic drag by measuring least movement
  • Compare to known drag coefficients
day 2 physics activity
Day 2 Physics activity
  • Investigate background references on internet
    • Impact of design and weight on performance
    • Impact of drag and resistance on acceleration
  • Tradeoffs to be considered:
    • Aerodynamic drag from Day 1
    • Motor power versus weight
    • Wheel radius
  • Have groups of 3 / 4 students research hybrid vehicles and design vehicle to meet project requirements, using tradeoff data
day 1 chemistry activity
Day 1 Chemistry activity
  • Introduce concept of battery ratings
    • Amp hours
    • Current rating
    • Cost / kWh and cost / kg
  • Working in groups of 3 or 4, students will use battery tester in series with ammeter while measuring battery voltage to determine battery ratings for different composition batteries
  • Choose battery based on energy, weight and cost
  • Compare to known battery ratings
day 2 chemistry activity
Day 2 Chemistry activity
  • Investigate background references on internet
    • Impact of design and weight on performance
    • Impact of fuel cell output on acceleration
  • Tradeoffs to be considered:
    • Energy storage versus weight
    • Fuel cell output versus weight
  • Have 3 or 4 students in group design fuel cell / battery combination to meet design project requirements, using research and tradeoff data provided: PEM
day 3 combined activity
Day 3 Combined activity
  • Combine one Physics/Chemistry small group and put together ideas:
    • Can fuel cell / energy storage combination meet requirements?
      • Will total mass alter performance?
      • Will cost exceed target price?
      • Is mileage acceptable?
    • Do you still want to drive this car?
  • Have students groups present design to include:
    • fuel cell / energy storage combination
    • mechanical design
    • How project requirements were met
materials
Materials
  • Access to computer laboratory for research
  • Windtunnel testing
    • box fan, cardboard boxes, duct tape, matchbox cars, scale, meter stick
  • Battery testing
    • Kits available for $9 to test batteries, or you can use a 330 ohm resistor; also need voltmeter, ammeter, wire jumpers
  • The project CD contains:
    • Student activities
    • Assessments
    • Teacher notes with solutions
    • Presentations
pre test on understanding and misconceptions
Pre-test on understanding and misconceptions
  • Commercially available hybrid technology
  • Where can hydrogen be derived from
  • Batteries currently used in hybrids
  • How are batteries recharged
  • Moving vehicle Force diagram
  • Forms of energy and how to store
  • Hybrid vehicle performance
assessment
Assessment
  • Lab assessment
    • all materials listed
    • Assumptions stated
    • Detailed procedure
    • Experiment design
    • Expected outcome and results present
  • Project assessment
    • All tradeoffs considered
    • Vehicle meets 0-60 mph criteria
post test students on concepts learned
Post-test students on concepts learned
  • Minimizing aerodynamic drag
  • Effects of Road resistance
  • Battery characteristics
  • How Hydrogen fuel cells work
  • Use of a wind tunnel
  • Acceleration tradeoff analysis
  • Electrical output
  • Vectors on motor powered vehicle
references
References
  • Larmine, L., Dicks, A. (2003), Fuel Cell Systems Explained Second Edition, England: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Ehsani, M. et al. (2005), Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles, New York: CRC Press.
  • Akella, S., et al, (2001), Model-Based Systems Analysis of a Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicle Configuration, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, 25 June 2001, 1777-1782.