hydrogen utilization fuel cell n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Hydrogen Utilization - Fuel Cell PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Hydrogen Utilization - Fuel Cell

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 54

Hydrogen Utilization - Fuel Cell - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 113 Views
  • Uploaded on

MEMS Labs MEM Departmemt NSYSU. MEM Department NSYSU. Hydrogen Utilization - Fuel Cell. Shou-Shing Hsieh Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering National Sun Yat-Sen University Kaohsiung,Taiwan February 26, 2006. MEMS Labs MEM Departmemt NSYSU. MEM Department NSYSU.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Hydrogen Utilization - Fuel Cell' - tacey


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
hydrogen utilization fuel cell

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Hydrogen Utilization -Fuel Cell

Shou-Shing Hsieh

Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering

National Sun Yat-Sen University

Kaohsiung,Taiwan

February 26, 2006

slide2

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Items

  • What is energy?
  • Kyoto Protocol
  • Hydrogen Energy
  • Fuel Cell
  • Types of Fuel Cell
  • Micro Fuel Cell
  • Experimental Results
  • Fuel Cell Stack Design
  • Conclusions
  • References

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 01

what is energy

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

What is energy ?

The capacity for doing work as measured by the capability of doing work (potential energy) or the conversion of this capability to motion

(kinetic energy).

Most of the world's convertible energy comes from fossil fuels that are burned to produce heat that is then used as a transfer medium to mechanical or

other means in order to accomplish tasks.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 02

types of energy

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Types of Energy
  • Coal
  • Oil & Natural Gas
  • Nuclear
  • Geothermal
  • Solar
  • Hydropower
  • Wind
  • Biomass
  • Fuel cells(Hydrogen Energy )

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 03

energy crisis

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Energy Crisis

If we continue to consume energy on such a scale

, we may face a petroleum shortage in the latter half of the 21st century, according to some predictions. Though nobody is certain how much petroleum is left

, one thing is certain - at some point we will run out.

Because people used a large number of the fossil fuel, discharge the carbon dioxide in a large amount. These then cause global warming and, consequently

, influence the human ecology.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 04

kyoto protocol

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the year 1990. The goal is to lower

emissions from six greenhouse gases.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 05

hydrogen energy

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Hydrogen Energy

Hydrogen is a chemical element that carries energy. It can be stored in either liquid or gaseous form. Today, hydrogen is not a substance we consciously encounter in everyday life, although it is used

extensively in many industries.

It is normally bound to other substances, it is colourless, odourless, non-toxic and when it burns in

air, that reaction produces only water.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 06

hydrogen energy continued

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Hydrogen Energy(continued)

Besides the fuel of boiler and steam turbine, the hydrogen can often be used to the fuel cell to generate electricity most directly, because it actually

generates electricity efficiency up to 40%~60%.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 07

hydrogen appli cations

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Hydrogen Applications

The applications of hydrogen energy are following :

  • As the fuel of the fuel cell
  • As the fuel of family
  • As the fuel of the vehicle engine or the energy of the

electronic device

  • As the fuel of the aircraft
  • As the materials of the chemical industry
  • As the fuel of the boiler and steam turbine

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 08

hydrogen fuel stations

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Hydrogen Fuel Stations
  • Hydrogen Fuel Stations – Worldwide accumulated, sorted by region (1995-2004)

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 09

hydrogen for fuel cell

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Hydrogen for Fuel Cell

The electrons flow from the fuel cell's anode to cathode, thereby generating electricity. Meanwhile

, the hydrogen atoms that have shed their electrons become hydrogen ions and travel through a polymer electrolyte membrane to reach the cathode side. There, with the help of a catalyst on the cathode, the hydrogen ions and electrons join with oxygen to form

water.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 10

fuel cell

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Fuel Cell

Fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidant directly into electricity. The principal components of a fuel cell include electrodes (anode and cathode), and membrane-

electrode assembly (MEA).

Fuel cell stacks available and under development are silent, produce no pollutants, have no moving parts

, and have potential fuel efficiencies far beyond the most advanced reciprocating engine or gas turbine

power generation systems.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 11

fuel cell continued

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Fuel Cell ( continued )
  • A Traditional Design of PEMFC

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 12

slide14

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Fuel Cell ( continued )

  • High efficiency to produce energy

* LHV = lower heating

value.

A thermodynamic term that indicates the heat needed to raise steam

from liquid water.

(From :http://www.broadcastpapers.com/m)

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 13

slide15

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Fuel Cell Advantages

  • Working time is longer than the traditional batteries
  • It can offer energy for a long time when the hydrogen supply with.
  • Short time in supplement fuel process
  • After the fuel is used up, then It can run once again if we supply
  • the hydrogen constantly.
  • Clean in the energy production process
  • The products are only water and heat.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 14

slide16

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Types of Fuel Cell

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 15

slide17

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

PEMFC

Anode Reaction

Cathode Reaction

Total Reaction

Ideal Voltage

1.23V

( From :http://fuelcellsworks.com)

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 16

slide18

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

PEMFC (continued)

This type of fuel cell operates at low temperatures (75OC), and has a high power output density, and

can vary output to meet demand.

It is suitable for use in light-duty vehicles, buildings

, cell phones, and as replacements for small

rechargeablebatteries.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 17

slide19

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

AFC

Anode Reaction

Cathode Reaction

Total Reaction

( From :http://www.fuelcellcontrol.com)

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 18

afc continued

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

AFC (continued)

Alkali fuel cells (AFC) use a concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in water as an electrolyte. Hydroxyl ions ( ) migrate from the cathode to the anode in these fuel cells. Hydrogen gas supplied to the anode reacts with the ions to produce water. The reaction releases electrons

, which provide the electrical power. And AFC are 60

percent efficient.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 19

slide21

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

DMFC

Anode Reaction

Cathode Reaction

Total Reaction

Ideal Voltage

1.18V

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 20

slide22

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

DMFC (continued)

The DMFC draws hydrogen from the methanol

directly at operating temperatures of 50-100OC.

It is suitable for applications such as cell phones and

laptop computers.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 21

slide23

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

PAFC

Anode Reaction

Cathode Reaction

Total Reaction

(From: http://www.brennstoffzelle-koeln.de/Pages)

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 22

slide24

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

PAFC (continued)

This type of fuel cell operates at high temperatures (150 ~ 200OC) to maintain the ionic conductivity of

phosphoric acid.

It generates electricity at 40% efficiency (80% if the steam produced is used for cogeneration) and can

use impure hydrogen as fuel.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 23

slide25

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

MCFC

Anode Reaction

Cathode Reaction

Total Reaction

( From :http://fuelcellsworks.com)

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 24

slide26

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

MCFC (continued)

MCFC are expected to achieve power efficiencies of

60% (85% with cogeneration) and operate at very high temperatures (650OC) to maintain electrolyte

conductivity.

This type of fuel cell is suitable for large electric utility

applications.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 25

slide27

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

SOFC

Anode Reaction

Cathode Reaction

Total Reaction

( From :http://fuelcellsworks.com)

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 26

slide28

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

SOFC (continued)

This type of fuel cell is suitable for large, high-power

applications such as industrial or electricity

generators.

Its operating temperatures is 1000OC, and it is expected to achieve power efficiencies of 60% (85%

with cogeneration).

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 27

fuel cell trends

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Fuel Cell Trends

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 28

fuel cell comparison

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Fuel Cell Comparison

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 29

slide31

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Micro Fuel Cell

  • Applications

Distinctive, high density energy sources for portable

products

Hybrid battery rechargers : separate (desktop)

Portable Electronics : radio, PDA, laptop, cellular

phone, portable power source

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 30

slide32

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Micro Fuel Cell (continued)

  • Advantages of Micro PEM Fuel Cells

Small, lightweight

Inexpensive(?)

Low (room) temperature operation

Unique multi-layer (ceramic,silicon, etc.)

miniaturization possible

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 31

slide33

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Micro Fuel Cell (continued)

  • H2 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (H2 PEMFC)

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 32

slide34

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Micro Fuel Cell (continued)

  • New Design

Three to one layer design: combine current collector

, flow filed plate and backing layer

Microstructure by MEMS fabrication:

(a) thin film deposited and layer growth with surface

mount technology

(b) microflow channel by excimer laser processing

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 33

slide35

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Micro Fuel Cell (continued)

  • structure

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 34

slide36

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Micro Fuel Cell (continued)

  • Advantage of new design

Minimized fuel cells and reduce its weight.

Catalyst (Pt) loading reduced as low as 0.15mg/cm2

(traditional design is 0.4mg/cm2).

Flow field plate have a large effective flow passage

even up 20% increase in contact area.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 35

micro fuel cell continued

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Micro Fuel Cell (continued)
  • Gasket
  • An acrylic structure to protect and observe the fuel cell.
  • Flow Field Plate、Current Collector

Serpentine Flow Field

Interdigitated Flow Field

Mesh Flow Field

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 36

micro fuel cell continued1

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Micro Fuel Cell (continued)
  • Membrane-electrode assembly (MEA)

An assembly consisting of an anode, and electrolyte, and a

cathode (3 layer MEA), and may include gas diffusion layers.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 37

mea morphology

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

MEA Morphology

SEM image showing the morphological

condition of thin platinum sputtered on

AFM image showing the morphological

condition on thin platinum (200x200nm2)

Nafion 117 (1.5x1.2μm2)

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 38

micro fuel cell

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Micro Fuel Cell

flow-field plate

fuel cell

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 39

slide41

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Experiments

lamp

H2 in

Air in

H2 out

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 40

fuel cell polarization

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Fuel Cell Polarization

As the fuel cell is operating, the cell potential decreases from its reversible (ideal) value for the

sake of the irreversible losses.

These losses are often referred as polarization

, which include activation polarization, concentration

polarization, ohmic polarization.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 41

fuel cell polarization continued

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Fuel Cell Polarization(continued)
  • Activation Polarization

It happens in the delayed phenomenon of reactive speed

when fuel cells start the electric chemical reaction on the

electrode surface.

  • Ohmic Polarization

It happens on the move of ion in the electrolyte and the

impedance of electron move.

  • Concentration Polarization

It happens when the fuel cells don’t maintain the proper

concentration of reactant on the electrode surface.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 42

slide44

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Experimental Results

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 43

slide45

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Experimental Results (continued)

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 44

stack design methods

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Stack Design Methods

Fuel cell stack using series is a conventional method for

commercialization, because we can get high voltage and low current

to drive devices in our life. The methods of series are following :

Conventional Vertical Stack

Planar Flip-Flop Stack

Banded Stack

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 45

slide47

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Stack Design Methods (Continued)

  • Conventional Vertical Stack

The conventional vertical stack is a simple design method to construct a fuel cell stack, because its principle and experiment test loop are easier and simpler. But, its volume is huger than the other design

methods.

  • Planar Flip-Flop Stack and Banded Stack

The planar flip-flop and banded stack are advanced methods to construct fuel cell stacks, because they use conductor to connect other neighbor single cell. Its advantages are small volume and packaging flexibility, but using interconnected conductor methods will cause potentially higher ohmic loss and difficulty of ensuring equal reactant

distribution to muiltiple cells in a plane.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 46

slide48

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

H2 input

Conductor

MEM Department NSYSU

Stack Design Methods (Continued)

Fuel cell stack connected in parallel is not useful for micro fuel

cell, because we can not get high voltage and low current to

drive devices in our life (The parallel method gets low voltage

and high current). The volume of parallel stack is larger than

the series, and the method is difficulty of ensuring equal

reactant distribution to muiltiple cells. The method of parallel is

following :

Surface to Surface Stack

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 47

slide49

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

Anode

Cathode

Membrane

i

i

MEM Department NSYSU

Stack Design Methods (Continued)

In spite of the above-statements in the high power rate fuel cell

using for the power plant, SOFC, the method is very suitable.

Because the parallel method can avoid short circuit when there

are fuel cells not working in the system. The method of parallel

Is following :

The power plant used in parallel and series fuel cell stack system

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 48

slide50

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Stack Design Goals

  • Low resistance connection between cells

Because the force from nut and bolt will increase the contact resistance in stack fabrication, we should take care of the effect in fuel cell design.

  • Interconnect must accurately control and distribute air and
  • fuel flows

If the hydrogen and oxygen don’t distribute equally in each cells, it will

cause higher concentration resistance and decrease stack

performance. So we should take extreme caution in fuel cell design.

  • Fuel losses must be controlled for high fuel utilization

Fuel loss will cause the performance decrease, so we can use UV glue or other packaged materials to prevent the effect.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 49

fuel cell applications

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Fuel Cell Applications
  • Transportation vehicle
  • Notebook

Samsung 2004 presents new DMFC notebook. It can work more than 10

Honda’s 2005 FCX fuel cell vehicle – it

is powered by a Honda designed and

manufactured fuel cell stack.

hours without recharging.

( From : http://www.fuelcelltoday.com )

( From : http:// www.motorcities.com )

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 50

slide52

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Conclusions

No matter in food, clothing, lives, transportation

, education, amusement, the energy is closely linked

with our life. So on the premise of no pollution for the

environment, it is a good choice to use the fuel cell to

generate electricity.

We can believe that under the regulation of Kyoto Protocol, it will be sure to have brighter prospects to

use the fuel cell to generate electricity in the future.

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 51

references

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

References
  • S.-S. Hsieh, J.-K. Kuo, C.-F. Hwang, and H.-H Tasi, “A Novel Design

and Microfabrication for a Micro PEMFC,” Microsystem Technologies

,Vol.10, 2004,pp. 121-126.

  • S.-S. Hsieh, C.-F. Huang, J.-K. Kuo, H.-H Tasi, and S.-H. Yang, “SU-8

Flow Field Plates for a Micro PEMFC,” Journal of Solid State

Electrochemistry, Vol.9,2005,121-131.

  • Fabrication and Testing of a Two Cell PEM Fuel Cell Stack, Table of

Contents (2003)

  • Dr. Hazem Tawfik, Hydrogen Economy & (PEM) Fuel Cells
  • Life Style Publications

( http://www.lifestyle-movement.org.uk/str1/publicns.htm )

  • Introduction to hydrogen

( http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/energy/nn/nn_rt/nn_rt_hy/article_1142_en.htm )

  • Energy and Environment

( http://www.toyota.co.jp/en/tech/environment/fchv/fchv02.html )

S.S. Hsieh

ppt. 52

slide54

MEMS Labs

MEM Departmemt NSYSU

MEM Department NSYSU

Thanks for Your Attention !