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Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Fleets. POLICY DESCRIPTION #1 The use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel :. For the short term diminishes our reliance on imported oil and ensures a more secure energy future. http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/faqs.html.

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policy description 1 the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel
POLICY DESCRIPTION #1The use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel:
  • For the short term
  • diminishes our reliance on imported oil and ensures a more secure energy future.

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/faqs.html

policy description 2 the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel
POLICY DESCRIPTION #2The use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel:
  • In the long run
  • brings us one step closer to the “hydrogen economy”

hydrogen

http://www.ott.doe.gov/pdfs/trb2000.pdf

what is the goal of the hydrogen economy
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, however, it doesn’t exist in it’s pure form on earth. It must be extracted.

The goal is to extract hydrogen cleanly - avoiding the pollution that comes from relying on a carbon fuel as the energy carrier.

What is the goal of the “hydrogen economy?”

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/hydrotech.html

http://www.h2fuelcells.org/commentary1_1.html

why should we pursue the hydrogen economy 1
Why should we pursue the “hydrogen economy?” #1
  • Domestic fossil fuel supply is down

http://www.phoenixproject.net/abstract.pdf

where are we getting our hydrogen from today
Where are we getting our hydrogen from today?

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/hydrotech.html

http://www.h2fuelcells.org/commentary1_1.html

why not get hydrogen from other fossil fuels 1
Why not get hydrogen from other fossil fuels? #1
  • Natural Gas is potentially the most abundant fossil fuel

http://www.ott.doe.gov/pdfs/trb2000.pdf

why not get hydrogen from other fossil fuels 2
Why not get hydrogen from other fossil fuels? #2
  • The expansive existing infrastructure for delivering gasoline makes even that dirty fuel an option.

http://www.h2fuelcells.org/commentary1_1.html

http://mail.infomagic.net/fdsc/servicestationglare.htm

why not get hydrogen from renewables 1
Why not get hydrogen from renewables? #1
  • Although the technology is at our fingertips, renewable hydrogen is currently too expensive

http://www.ott.doe.gov/pdfs/trb2000.pdf

why not get hydrogen from renewables 2
Why not get hydrogen from renewables? #2
  • For the long run, we’ve got to keep our eyes on the prize.

http://www.nmsea.org/Curriculum/7_12/electrolysis/electrolysis.htm

http://www.h2fuelcells.org/commentary1_1.html

summary of problems
There are three

main obstacles to

hydrogen fuel cell

bus fleets:

Supply Costs

Infrastructure Development

Safety

SUMMARY OF PROBLEMS
problem 1 supply costs
Supply costs include:

Hydrogen Fuel Costs

Bus Costs

Cost of Facilities

Problem #1: Supply Costs
problem 1 a hydrogen fuel costs
The most economical hydrogen fueling scenarios cost around $15-20/GJ delivered to the vehicle (without taxes), which is two to three times more than gasoline before taxes.

According to EIA energy price projections, electrolyzer-based hydrogen production is costly, resulting in a hydrogen cost of around $40/GJ (without taxes).

Problem #1(A): Hydrogen Fuel Costs
  • The Energy Information Agency (EIA) is part of the DOE

http://www-db.research.anl.gov/db1/cartech/document/DDD/192.pdf

http://www.cartech.doe.gov/research/fuels/best-fuels.html

problem 1 b bus costs
The busses will cost too much until they can be mass producedProblem #1(B): Bus Costs

http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/february01/feature.html

problem 1 c cost of facilities
Cost of Compressing H2Problem #1(C): Cost of Facilities

http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/fuel-cell-bus-evaluation-sunline.pdf

problem 1 c cost of facilities17
Problem #1(C): Cost of Facilities
  • Cost of Storing H2

http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/fuel-cell-bus-evaluation-sunline.pdf

problem 1 c cost of facilities18
Problem #1(C): Cost of Facilities
  • Cost of Dispensing H2

http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/fuel-cell-bus-evaluation-sunline.pdf

http://www.hygen.com/solar_hydrogen_vehicle_project.htm

problem 1 c cost of facilities19
Problem #1(C): Cost of Facilities
  • Cost of Maintenance Facilities

http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/fuel-cell-bus-evaluation-sunline.pdf

http://www.rio02.de/proceedings/ppt/217_Schettino.pdf

problem 1 c cost of facilities20
Problem #1(C): Cost of Facilities

Significant startup costs are needed

http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/fuel-cell-bus-evaluation-sunline.pdf

problem 2 infrastructure development
Infrastructure development includes:

Technology Providers

Refueling Station Investment

General Investment

Problem #2: Infrastructure Development
problem 2 a technology providers
Two main technology providers are:

Ballard Power Systems Inc.

MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG

Problem #2(A): Technology Providers
ballard power systems inc 1
The DaimlerChrysler “New Electric Bus” impressively demonstrated the possibilities of fuel cells in the heavy-duty sector

The “Nebus”

Ballard Power Systems Inc. #1

http://www.ballard.com/tD.asp?pgid=26&dbid=0

ballard power systems inc 2
Three local busses in Chicago and three in Vancouver, using Ballard fuel cell engines proved their efficiency in everyday operation during two separate two-year test programs.

Collectively these six busses traveled over 73,000 miles in revenue service carrying over 200,000 passengers.

The “P3 Bus”

Ballard Power Systems Inc. #2

http://www.ballard.com/tD.asp?pgid=26&dbid=0

ballard power systems inc 3
The ZEbus was demonstrated with the SunLine Transit Agency for a one-year period in Thousand Palms, California, as part of the California Fuel Cell Partnership.

The “ZEbus”

Ballard Power Systems Inc. #3

http://www.ballard.com/tD.asp?pgid=26&dbid=0

ballard power systems inc 4
Ballard began delivery of fuel cell bus engines in late 2002 for the 30 Mercedes-Benz Citaro busses to be used in the European Fuel Cell Bus Project.

These busses will be delivered to 10 European cities beginning in 2003 as the EU leads the way in the adoption of zero-emission fuel cell technology.

The “Citaro Fuel Cell Bus”

Ballard Power Systems Inc. #4

http://www.ballard.com/tD.asp?pgid=26&dbid=0

ballard power systems inc 5
The “Citaro Fuel Cell Bus”

Citaro Fuel Cell Busses will also be operating in Perth, Western Australia

Ballard Power Systems Inc. #5

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/technology.html

man nutzfahrzeuge ag 1
MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG #1
  • MAN AG has been providing hydrogen bus technology, primarily in Munich, Germany, since 1996

http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/hydrogen/iea/pdfs/bavarian_proj.pdf

man nutzfahrzeuge ag 2
MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG #2
  • MAN AG’s most recent project is for a Berlin, Lisbon, and Copenhagen bus trial.
  • If successful, conversion of a large portion of the bus fleet and a stationary filling station will be implemented.

http://www.eihp.org/eihp1/workshop/experts/bvg/start.html

http://www.bizspaceautomobile.com/fuel_cell_bus.htm

man nutzfahrzeuge ag 3
MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG #3

http://www.bizspaceautomobile.com/fuel_cell_bus.htm

http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/hydrogen/iea/pdfs/bavarian_proj.pdf

problem 2 a technology providers31
Problem #2(A): Technology Providers
  • Just like the first automobiles, fuel cell busses have not yet achieved a standard design.
  • The fuel cell busses in existence worldwide show a wide range of technical solutions because the automotive supplier base is only still forming.

http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/hydrogen/iea/pdfs/bavarian_proj.pdf

problem 2 a technology providers32
Problem #2(A): Technology Providers

However, the supplier base is forming

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/presentations/hamburg/page30.html

problem 2 b refueling station investment
Refueling stations can be either portable or stationary.

The refueling station infrastructure is slowly becoming a reality.

Problem #2(B): Refueling Station Investment
problem 2 b refueling station investment34
Munich airport's new hydrogen filling station

In June 1999, an $18 million hydrogen production & fueling station opened at the Munich Airport

Problem #2(B): Refueling Station Investment

http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/june99/feature.html

problem 2 b refueling station investment35
In October 2002, two new hydrogen fueling stations opened in CA and Germany.

In November 2002, a third opened in Nevada.

More sites around Los Angeles are moving towards approval, and fueling equipment is beginning to be ordered for Europe's 10-city fuel cell urban bus project.

The latest addition to the growing number of hydrogen fueling facilities worldwide is located in Richmond, CA

Problem #2(B): Refueling Station Investment

http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/November02/features.html

problem 2 b refueling station investment36
Problem #2(B): Refueling Station Investment

In July 2001, the first solar-powered hydrogen production and fueling station in the Los Angeles area was opened by American Honda Motor Co.

http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/august01/

problem 2 b refueling station investment37
Problem #2(B): Refueling Station Investment

A solar-powered, permanent hydrogen fueling station using electrolysis is the ideal scenario.

http://www-building.arct.cam.ac.uk/westc/pv/pv.html

stuart energy refueling facilities 1
Clean Air Now Project (1995-1997)

Over a period of two years, Stuart Energy fueled a fleet of hydrogen vehicles at Xerox's site in El Segundo, California, using hydrogen produced from solar power.

Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #1

http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

stuart energy refueling facilities 2
Coast Mountain Transit Project (1998-2000)

Stuart Energy fueled three hydrogen fuel cell buses used by Coast Mountain Transit in its regular fleet in the city of Vancouver.

Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #2

http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

stuart energy refueling facilities 3
SunLine Transit (2000-)

In California, Stuart Energy is providing hydrogen fuel to SunLine Transit Agency for a fuel cell bus.

To meet the hydrogen needs of participants of the California Fuel Cell Partnership, the Stuart Energy fueler will be available to the public for refueling as hydrogen cars are introduced in the area.

Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #3

http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

stuart energy refueling facilities 4
B.C. Hydro-Powertech Labs

& NRC Fuel Cell Technology Center (2001-)

In Surrey and Vancouver, B.C., to demonstrate:

the benefits of compressed hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and

water electrolysis as the preferred technology for generating that hydrogen.

Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #4

http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

stuart energy refueling facilities 5
Ford Motor Company (2001-)

To the Ford Motor Company in Dearborn, Michigan.

Ford will conduct evaluations and provide information on usability and performance of the fueler.

Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #5

Ford Motor Co. research vice president Bill Powers explains details of Ford's new hydrogen gas station.

http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/september99/SeptemberFeature.html

stuart energy refueling facilities 6
Ford Th!nk (2002-)

In Arizona, where the components are mounted on a single trailer and packaged to enable the system to be easily transported.

This station can produce 1 kg of hydrogen an hour and can meet the daily fueling needs of a small fleet of vehicles.

Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #6

http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

stuart energy refueling facilities 7
California Fuel Cell Partnership Station (2002-)

This station provides high-purity hydrogen fuel to demonstration fuel cell vehicles of the California Fuel Cell Partnership (CaFCP), and is located at the Richmond Operating Division of AC Transit, also an associate member of the CaFCP.

Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #7

http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

stuart energy refueling facilities 8
Hydrogen Energy Station (2003-)

In Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, the fueler is composed of an indoor hydrogen generator, compression system, storage system, and hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine gen-set; as well as an external vehicle fueling dispenser.

Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #8

http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

stuart energy refueling facilities 9
City of Chula Vista (2003-)

To the City of Chula Vista, CA, in cooperation with SunLine Transit Agency, a fast-fill, portable hydrogen fueling station enabling the City of Chula Vista to test and demonstrate fuel cell busses and other hydrogen vehicles.

The fueler produces over 3 kg of hydrogen per hour and can fuel up to 3 buses a day.

Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #9

http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

stuart energy refueling facilities 10
Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #10

For 2003, Stuart Energy is planning hydrogen fuelling stations in Barcelona, Amsterdam, Hong Kong, Malmo and Stockholm Sweden.

http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

problem 2 c general investment
Problem #2(C): General Investment
  • General Investment in the hydrogen fuel cell bus infrastructure continues to grow.
problem 2 c general investment49
Problem #2(C): General Investment
  • General investment in the hydrogen fuel cell bus infrastructure tends to follow a 3-step model covering a period of at least 20 years.

http://www.rio02.de/proceedings/ppt/217_Schettino.pdf

problem 2 c general investment50
A few of the biggest general investors migrating toward the hydrogen economy:

Ford, Chrysler, Westinghouse, DuPont, General Motors, Sandia National Labs, Toyota, Texaco, Exxon, Daimler-Benz, Renault, Honda, Siemens, Nissan, Volkswagen, Jet Propulsion Lab, Los Alamos National Laboratory, BMW, PSA Peugeot Citroën, AlliedSignal, Mazda, Volvo . . .

Problem #2(C): General Investment

http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/5.10/hydrogen.html?pg=7&topic

problem 2 c general investment51
Problem #2(C): General Investment
  • President Bush proposed $1.2 billion for hydrogen research in State of the Union Message

(Jan 28, 2003)

http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/JanSpecial/

problem 2 c general investment52
Problem #2(C): General Investment
  • The United Nations gives $60 million to 5 developing nations for hydrogen fuel cell bus fleet demonstration projects.

http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/february01/

problem 3 safety
Is hydrogen safe?

“Every time I think about hydrogen I remember the Zeppelin”

Problem #3: Safety

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/presentations/germanhydrogen/p3.html

problem 3 safety54
Problem #3: Safety
  • The Hindenburg explosion is not attributed to hydrogen.
  • The Hindenburg’s outer shell was coated with a highly flammable paint.

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/presentations/germanhydrogen/p22.html

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/safety.html

problem 3 safety55
Problem #3: Safety
  • Durable tanks add to safety

http://www.eihp.org/eihp1/workshop/experts/bvg/start.html

problem 3 safety56
Problem #3: Safety
  • Which car would you rather be in?

Hydrogen Leak

Gasoline Leak

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/safety.html

problem 3 safety57
Codes and standards are currently being developed by national and international organizations around the world.

When handled properly, hydrogen is at least as safe as any other fuel.

Problem #3: Safety

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/safety.html

conclusion 1 supply costs
Conclusion #1(A): Hydrogen Fuel Costs

Hydrogen from renewables will need policy assistance and lower cost to be competitive.

Transit busses are one of the best applications because they are government subsidized.

Conclusion #1: Supply Costs

http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/fuel-cell-bus-evaluation-sunline.pdf

conclusion 1 supply costs60
Conclusion #1(B): Bus Costs

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Busses should reach reasonable market prices in just a few years.

Conclusion #1: Supply Costs

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/safety.html

conclusion 1 supply costs61
Conclusion #1(C): Cost of Facilities

Because hydrogen fuel cell bus fleets are centrally located, the facilities can be used most effectively.

Transit busses are one of the best applications because they are government subsidized.

Conclusion #1: Supply Costs

http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/fuel-cell-bus-evaluation-sunline.pdf

conclusion 2 infrastructure development
Conclusion #2(A): Technology Providers

Although hundreds of hydrogen fuel cell busses have been produced, technology providers need to mature into mass production.

Ballard Power Systems Inc. seems to be on it’s way, serving orders of 30 or more.

Conclusion #2: Infrastructure Development

http://www.ballard.com/tD.asp?pgid=26&dbid=0

conclusion 2 infrastructure development63
Conclusion #2(B): Refueling Station Investment

Refueling stations can be provided by Stuart Energy.

Local initiatives and the automotive sector have been successfully bringing mobile and stationary refueling stations into existence primarily in the US and the EU.

Because hydrogen fuel cell busses are centrally located, the need for a nationwide infrastructure is not very strong.

Conclusion #2: Infrastructure Development
conclusion 2 infrastructure development64
Conclusion #2(C): General Investment

Attention and investment from the auto industry, President Bush, and the United Nations are good indications that a “hydrogen economy” is on it’s way, at least initially, through hydrogen fuel cell bus fleets.

Conclusion #2: Infrastructure Development
conclusion 3 safety
Conclusion #3: Safety
  • Which car would you rather be in?

Hydrogen Leak

Gasoline Leak

http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/safety.html