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Table of content. Intelligence ……..2 I.Q. Tests………………………..3 Intelligence……………………...4 Types of Intelligence…………...5 Mathematical Linguistic………..6 Verbal/Spatial Linguistic…….…7 Bodily/Musical Linguistic………8 Interpersonal/Intrapersonal……9 Naturalist/Existential………….10

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table of content
Table of content


I.Q. Tests………………………..3


Types of Intelligence…………...5

Mathematical Linguistic………..6

Verbal/Spatial Linguistic…….…7

Bodily/Musical Linguistic………8



Animal Intelligence……………11

Animal Intelligence……………12

Reflection on Intelligence…….13

Personality …….14

Stages of Personality…………15

Erikson’s eight stages of Personality Development….…16

Personality Theory……………17

Organization of Personality Theory………………………….18

The Personality of freedom….19

Reflection on Personality…….20

Consciousness …21

States of Consciousness…….22

Aspects of the Unconscious…23

Conscious to unconscious stages…………………………..24

The impossibility of not thinking..25

What are Dreams?…………....26


Lucid Dreaming& Dream Consciousness………………..28

Do Dreams Exist?…………….29

Do Dreams Exist?…………….30

Are we Ever Unconscious?….31

The Biological Function of Dreaming………………………32

Unconscious states caste

light on consciousness……….33

Knowing More than you see…34

Single neurons track your conscious vision………………35

Unconscious faces cry/laugh.….36

Pure Consciousness in Meditation and the Self……37


Near Death Experiences……..39

Reflection on Consciousness. 40



Artists Bibliography..….………43

By:Neta Litvin / Psychology 202

Dr. R. King / Fall 2003

i q tests
I.Q. Tests

The most popular standard in psychology is the 'IQ' test (Binet's intelligence quotient test), which measures mostly mental or conceptual skills. The most dominant current conception of intelligence, still only represents one segment of the whole spectrum of human intelligence. Moreover, that segment is largely the area of mental operations which computers and related forms of artificial intelligence are increasingly being designed to simulate.

The concept of the "I.Q." is absurd. The measure of one's "intelligence quotient," is an assigned number, which represents the intelligence of a person relative to their age group. And since intelligence is still an abstract concept that can't be defined, assigning an intelligence number to a person makes absolutely no sense. By using the intelligence quotient test, we measure intelligence. Intelligence is therefore defined as one's score on an intelligence quotient test. Therefore, what one's I.Q. test score measures is, by definition, that person's ability to score high on an I.Q. test. It logically measures nothing more, and gets us absolutely nowhere.


Is intelligence a single thing or various independent intellectual faculties?

According to Gardner (1999), intelligence is much more than IQ. In his definition, "Intelligence is a biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture" (p.34). Consequently, instead of intelligence being a single entity Gardner's definition views it as many things. To achieve this goal Gardner (1983; 1999) established several criteria for defining intelligence.

The criteria to consider "candidate intelligences" (Gardner, 1999,) are: 1) the potential for brain isolation by brain damage 2) its place in evolutionary history 3) the presence of core operations 4) susceptibility to encoding5) a distinct developmental progression6) the existence of idiot-savants, prodigies and other exceptional people

7) support from experimental psychology

8) support from psychometric findings (Gardner, 1999).


Types of Intelligence

Dr. Howard Gardner developed his theory of multiple intelligences. He posits that people employ several different types of intelligence, rather than one general type. Gardner revealed his theory in his ground-breaking book "Frames of Mind" (1983) where he outlined seven distinct intelligences. He later added two more.

The "Theory of Multiple Intelligences", in effect says, that IQ should not be measured as an absolute figure.

Individuals are never endowed solely with one intelligence. While all humans possess the eight intelligences, each person has his/her own particular combination of the intelligences. The value of including all 9 of the identified intelligences to insure that we are using our full brain power.

In the next few slides I will examine each type of intelligence.

mathematical linguistic
Mathematical Linguistic
  • People who think conceptually and are skilled in inductive and deductive reasoning, logic, and problem solving exhibit this strength. They explore patterns, categories, and relationships and can make connections between pieces of information. People strong in this type of intelligence enjoy numbers, puzzles, and experiments.
verbal linguistic
Verbal Linguistic
  • This refers to our skill with words - reading, writing, and speaking.


  • The ability to create or think in images, to manipulate objects and work with spatial relationships either physically (sculpture, crafts, building blocks) or in the mind's eye.
bodily kinesthetic
Bodily- kinesthetic

Musical Intelligence

  • The ability to remember melodies, have a feel for rhythm, enjoy playing instruments, and singing.
  • Relates to awareness and movement of the body. This intelligence is used in sports, dance and theater.


  • Strong understanding of other people and sensitivity to their needs.
  • A strong self-awareness... independent pursuit of goals...and the ability to learn from experience.

"existence precedes essence"

  • The ability to identify patterns in the natural world, such as the differences between the stars in the sky from month to month.

Wondering people that see the big picture. It is the ability to question our existence and meaning of life.

Existential “spiritual”

animal intelligence
Animal Intelligence

It doesn't take a scientist to know that animals are smart. But do animals really think? And if so, are their thoughts similar to ours? Scientists have long tried to figure out the intricate workings of human intelligence, but the process of how a thought is chemically produced in the brain still remains a mystery.

Jane Goodall 's most amazing discovery was that chimps could use tools. She observed them using sticks and blades of grass to "fish" in the ground for termites, a favorite treat. Scientists had always believed that humans are the only animals capable of creating and using tools. Jane discovered that chimps are far more intelligent than anyone had ever imagined.

animal intelligence1
Animal Intelligence

Today's studies show that animals, even though they possess different skills than us, can solve problems, make decisions, and show emotions - not unlike humans.

"We share the planet with thinking animals," Harvard Marc Hauser.

reflection on intelligence
Reflection on Intelligence

Intelligence comes in many forms. Each of us contains different types of intelligence with a particular combination, that is unique only to ourselves. Throughout life we utilize our intelligence on a minute-to-minute basis. It is extremely important to include all of our identified intelligences to insure that we are using our full brain power.

Maria Montessori wrote in ‘The Child in the Family’:

“It is true we cannot make a genius, we can only give each individual the chance to fulfill his potential to become an independent, secure and balanced human being.”

That is the reason why in my speech class, I convinced my group to present a class discussion about this topic. The thesis is: ”Should we change the educational curriculum in elementary schools (Fairfax county), to balance and accommodate children’s intelligences, as offering equal attention to all types of intelligences, in the classroom”.

As a child, I did not like school much, since I mostly had verbal (reading, writing, and speaking) and Math subjects, and just a bit of Physical Education and Arts. I am a visual learner, my strongest intelligence in visual/spatial and bodily/kinesthetic. The curriculum did not accommodate my needs.

Today, as a mother of two, I strive to provide my children a large variety of experiences so they can discover, nurture, and utilize their whole brain power.



“We will form our personality to fit our own image”

stages of personality dr c george boeree
Stages ofpersonality Dr. C. George Boeree

The idea of stages in personality has a biological basis that can be separated to at least three stages: the fetus, the child, and the adult. Their transitional stages: infancy, adolescence, and senescence.

Infancy- We are all born prematurely. For the first 6 to 12 months, our neural development is incomplete. We actually create certain neural paths, rather than just tightening synapses as we do later in life. It’s a little like learning instincts! Adolescence- The transition from child to adult involves a massive hormonal changes accompanied by a growth spurt. Senescence- the last year or so of a full life, during which time the organs begin to deteriorate and shut down. 

there are cultural additions we can make. In our culture, there is a sharp transition from preschool child to school child, and another sharp transition from single adult to married adult. These social stages can be very powerful.

The psychological side of these biological stages:

The fetus focuses on biological development, which is transformed by the presence of others in the infant into ego development in the child. In turn, the ego development of the child is transformed by the advent of sexuality in adolescence into the “trans-ego” or social development of the adult.

In the fetal and infancy stages, we lay the groundwork and develop our temperaments (founded in hormones and neurotransmitters). In the child stage, we develop a personality (founded in habits). In adolescence, continuing into adulthood, we develop character (based on conscious decision-making).

4 generations between my daughter and my grandpa

erikson s eight stages of personality development
Erikson’s Eight Stages of Personality Development

“Trust vs. mistrust (first year of life)

Fait in the predictability of the environment Suspicious, fearful, and overly concerned with security

Optimism about the future

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (age 1-3)

Gain control over bodily function and coordination Self-doubt about ability to control body, hostile rejection of all controls (internal & external)

Initiative vs. guilt (age 3-6)

Parental support for trying new things lead to joy in Feeling of guilt, unworthiness, and resentment may exercising initiative and taking on new challenges occur if scolded for exercising initiative

Industry vs. inferiority (age 6-13)

Learning the skills of personal care, productive Failure to learn these skills lead to:feeling of

work & independent livingmediocrity, inadequacy, and low self-sufficiency

Identity vs. role confusion (puberty)

Integration of one’s roles in life into aFailure to integrate these roles leads to a lack ofcoherent patternpersonal identity and despair

Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood)

In order to love another, one must have Failure at intimacy brings a painful sense of loneliness resolved all earlier crises and incompleteness

Generativity vs. stagnation (age 25-60)

Experience meaning and joy in all major Failure to remain productive and creative leads to:

activities of life life become a drab routine, feel dull and resentful

Integrity vs. despair (ages 60 and up)

Acceptance of one’s life; a sense that it is complete Despair at the loss of former roles and missed and satisfactory. Little fear of approaching death opportunities. Fear approaching death”

personality theory dr c george boeree
Personality theoryDr. C. George Boeree

Usually when we talk about someone's personality, we are talking about what makes that person different from other people, perhaps even unique.

This aspect of personality is called individual differences. These theories often spend a lot of attention on things like types and traits and tests with which can be categorized or compare people: Some people are neurotic, others not; some people are more introverted, others more extroverted. Personality theorists are interested in the structure of the individual, the psychological structure in particular. How are people “put together" how do they "work" how do they "fall apart.“ The field of personality psychology stretches from a fairly simple empirical search for differences between people to a rather philosophical search for the meaning of life!

organization theory of personality dr c george boeree
Organization”Theory of personality”Dr. C. George Boeree

Three broad orientations

1. Psychoanalytic or "first force." Refers to Freudians and others who have been strongly influenced by Freud: They tend to believe that the answers to the important questions lie somewhere behind the surface, hidden, in the unconscious.

Three versions of this approach. The first, which includes Sigmund and Anna Freud, and the ego psychologist, Erik Erikson.

Second, the transpersonal perspective, which is more spiritual, and represented by Carl Jung.

The third has been called the social psychological view, and includes Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, and Erich Fromm.

2. Behavioristic or "second force." In this perspective, the answers are felt to lie in careful observation of behavior and environment and their relations. The behavioristic approach represented by Hans Eysenck, B. F. Skinner, and Albert Bandura.

3. Humanistic or "third force." The humanistic approach, which is usually thought of as including existential psychology, is the most recent of the three. Often based on a reaction to psychoanalytic and behavioristic theories, the common belief is that the answers are to be found in consciousness or experience. Phenomenological methods are preferred by most humanists.

The first is humanism proper, represented by Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and George Kelly.

The second is existentialist psychology, represented by Ludwig Binswanger and Viktor Frankl.

the personality of freedom
The Personality of Freedom

Marc Maurer

An essential element of the development of an individual, is its personality - pattern of traits (emotional, behavioral, temperamental, or intellectual) that gives a person its uniqueness. All personalities are a mixture of traits. personalities are not immutable - they are constantly being revised, frequently without anybody's awareness that the alteration is taking place. The change can be directed. Alterations in personality come from within. The ability to vary the personality requires the knowledge that it can be done and the determination that it will be. Some people argue that it is possible to teach facts but that character cannot be learned. Patterns can be changed.

“We will form our personality to fit our own image”

reflection on personality
Reflection on personality

Personality is a mixture of traits & behaviors that gives a person its uniqueness. We all contain a particular combination of traits, that is unique only to us.

Each of us, beyond our culture, has specific details to his life: genetics, family structure and dynamics, special experiences, education, that all affect the way we think and feel and, ultimately, the way we interpret personality.

We all grow up in an environment and culture that existed before our birth.

These influence us so subtly and so thoroughly that we grow up thinking "this is the way things are," rather than "this is the ways things are in this particular society.“

Throughout our lives, people are constantly developing and changing through biological and developmental stages, that influences our personality as well.

Which personality shall I adapt now?

Sometimes I find myself altering my behavior in certain situations. Does that imply that I’m changing my personality? No. It’s the personality’s nature to constantly revise itself.

states of consciousness
States of Consciousness
        • Charles T. Tart
  • Our ordinary state of consciousness is not something natural or given, but a highly complex construction, a specialized tool for coping with our environment and the people in it, a tool that is useful for doing some things but not very useful, and even dangerous, for doing other things. Consciousness can be analyzed into many parts that function together in a pattern: they form a system. Understanding the complexity of consciousness requires seeing it as a system and understanding the parts. State of consciousness constructed from a few components. The firstis the existence of a basic awareness, generally refer to it as attention/awareness, including recognizing the existence of self-awareness, the awareness of being aware. Another basic component deal with structures.

The structures of particular interest to us are those that require some amount of attention/awareness to activate them. Attention/ awareness acts as psychological energyin this sense. Most techniques for controlling the mind are ways of deploying attention/awareness energy and other kinds of energies so as to activate desired structures (traits, skills, attitudes) and deactivate undesired structures.

aspects of the unconscious
Aspects of the Unconscious
        • Dr. C. George Boeree
  • Many theories postulate some sort of unconscious as a way of accounting for the many things that influence us without our full awareness.
  • We can pick out three aspects of the unconscious.
  • The first is biological. We come into this life with collective unconscious in place. It is likely composed of whatever instincts (mating, assertive, social, and nurturant) remain a part of our human nature, plus ourtemperament or inborn personality, and perhaps the preprogramming for stages of life.
  • Second, there is the social unconscious. It might include our language, social taboos, and cultural habits. It includes all the cultural things we were surrounded with in our childhood and have learned so well that they have become "second nature" to us! 
  • Third, there is the personal unconscious, the unconscious aspect of the ego. It is composed of our idiosyncratic habits, the more personal things we have learned so well we no longer need to be conscious of them in order to act them out. Included among those well-learned things might be the defense mechanisms. 

All this is in contrast to consciousness or awareness. Some can see it as the ability to experience reality (outer and inner) together with its meaning or relevance to ourselves (as biological, social, and individual organisms). Consciousness also provides us free will, the freedom to choose among the choices available to us. Consciousness is personal- It is yours alone, and as such it is within this personal consciousness that all of your "psychology" takes place. Everything you feel, perceive, think, and do is based on your subjective view of reality. In order to understand people, we need to understand them from the inside.

the impossibility of not thinking bernard j baars
The impossibility of not thinkingBernard J. Baars

and inner speech. Changes in mood or mental function profoundly alter the stream. A revealing brain imaging study was published in 2001 by a French group, Mazoyer and colleagues. They asked what would happen if people are simply asked to do nothing, compared to standard tasks? The subjects were asked to lie down in the darkened apparatus, to “keep their eyes closed, relax, refrain from moving, and avoid any structured mental activity such as counting, rehearsing, etc.” (p. 288). What would brain activity and self reports show? The biggest surprise came when PET scans consistently showed more brain activity in the “rest” condition than in any of nine specific tasks. They included visual imagery, word perception and generation, and mental calculation. Extraordinary! Whatever subjects were doing while lying in the dark, eyes closed, and trying not to think required more brain fuel than the standard tasks. What were they doing? visual imagery, inner speech, recall of conscious and immediate memories, executive functions, and emotions occupied their brain. It seems that consciousness has more important things to do than mental arithmetic. Spontaneous thought is more emotionally driven ad more self-involved. It also tends to bring up more interpersonal conflict. The stream seems to do meaningful things even when we aren’t sure what it is doing. That is apparently why the brain is more active during “rest” than during simple tasks. This study shows there is no gulf between mind and brain. They are just two sides of the same mountain. 

It is hard to stop the flow of conscious thoughts. In the 6th century BCE, Hindu and Buddhist techniques like meditation and yoga were devised to create inner silence. The effort to quiet the conscious mind may still result in a restless stream of thought. Our waking hours are normally occupied with a flow of thoughts, percepts, images, impulses, desires and worries, exertions of will, feelings,

what are dreams the dreams foundations
What are dreams? The dreams foundations

According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, dream is “a series of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations occurring involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep”, “a visionary scheme”. Dreams are powerful symbols projected onto our minds by our unconscious. They represent shadow aspects of ourselves which have been lost or split off from our awareness. Dreaming connects us to parts of our psyche we have lost. In this sense dreaming forms an integral part on our pathway back to wholeness.

Unfortunately contemporary man does not value his dreams because he has lost the ability to understand the language of symbols. Dreams are the language of the soul.

Our present world, values only what it can contain within literal meanings. In this sense dreams certainly appear chaotic and meaningless. However when dreams are understood from their symbolic perspective, their value is immeasurable.

Dreams are a paradox. Although they appear to mock our reasoning they genuinely want to be understood. The dream is our life story teller. It speaks of our dilemma by unfolding compelling images from the darkest forgotten realms of our inner world.

dreams the dreams foundations
DreamsThe dreams foundations

Not only do dreams offer a private means to explore inner reality and to gain unique, undeniable, personal experiences, but there is overwhelming evidence that they can be used to improve waking life. Dreams offer opportunities for fun, adventure, wish fulfillment, creativity, deep personal insight and even healing.

Although science has proven that we all dream every night, many people often remember no dreams at all, and even when they do, it is almost exclusively upon awakening, after the fact. Dreams are mental productsevents transpiring in the world belonging to the mind when the objective senses have withdrawn into rest. They relate to the past, present, and the future. Dreams are influenced by past or subjective, physical and spiritual causes. There are three types of dreams, subjective, physical and spiritual. We believe that most dreams are our 'subconscious mind' attempting to enlighten our 'conscious mind' to an a deeply buried issue which needs to be acknowledged and dealt with, for our highest good.

lucid dreaming dream consciousness
Lucid Dreaming & Dream Consciousness

Lucid dreams are uniquely different. One realizes that one is dreaming while the dream is still happening. The scene often suddenly expands in richness and color as the dreamer becomes aware that the world being experienced, although appearing utterly real and believable, is only a dream and that she is actually safe asleep in bed. The lucid dreamer is free to explore remarkable worlds limited only

by imagination. Lucid dreaming was brought into the

academic and public spotlights around the world once

it's scientific validity was proven by researchers at

Stanford University, California (where it has also been

proven to be a learnable skill). Proof was achieved by

performing, during REM sleep, a series of extreme

left-right eye signals which were agreed upon prior to

sleep. Though most of the body's muscles are

de-activated during REM sleep, the eye muscles are

not, and repeated experiments at Stanford, have proven

that the eyes (and to some extent other physiological

responses) can be brought under conscious control by

a dreamer who realizes that she is dreaming.

do dreams exist
Do Dreams Exist?

How do we know whether a dream or anything else "exists"? We could say, "everything exists", but then the word "exists" becomes meaningless. Usually, "to exist" is used to differentiate between real and imaginary, for example, a horse and a unicorn. The one "exists", the other doesn't. The dividing line appears to be things that occur as an input to our senses and others that don't. If we can sense it – it exists. Fallible as our senses are, that doesn't mean much - maybe there are unicorns in other planetary systems. what is the difference between something that exists and something that doesn't? Perhaps our language is forcing us into corners here. We have the word 'exist' and we have the choice 'X does exist' and 'X does not exist'. Perhaps the universe is not that simple. Perhaps we need a gradation of existence, from 'definitely exists - none can deny' (e.g. 'horse') through 'exists as long as you believe it does' (e.g. magic) and 'although it's not a physical entity it exists in someone's mind' (e.g. unicorns). We need to distinguish between the inside world and the outside world. There is a place where there is no difference between a horse and a unicorn, both can be created and destroyed at will. This place is the "inside" world. And then there is the other place where there seem to be horses, but not unicorns. That place is called the "outside" world. According to this distinction, "dreams exist in the inside world". However, that is not the way the word "to exist" is commonly used. Something is not commonly said to "exist" if it exists in your mind and only in your mind.

do dreams exist1
Do Dreams Exist?

Can we prove the existence of dreams?

The breakthrough in physics at the beginning of the 20th century was the insights that if you cannot possibly ever see, detect, verify, interact with something, then that "something" doesn't exist. Dreams are not viewable, detectable, verifiable or interactive. If the phrase "does exist" can only be defined through something like "can be shown to exist", then there is no question whether dreams do not "exist", regardless whether the opinion is "proof is not possible even if dreams may exist", or "dreams don't exist because proof is not possible".However, this is really part of a bigger question: If I experience something – anything, it doesn't have to be anything special - and I’m the only one that experiences it and it doesn't leave any trace, what is the difference between this experience and hallucination? Is there a difference? We live in a world of cause and effect. If my dream or hallucination caused me to do something afterwards then it must exist in some sense. We cannot have an effect with any cause.

Dreams exist in my mind, yet I'm the only one who can see my dreams. Today’s technology, with all its progress, cannot prove the existence of dreams. Yes, we can measure REM or other alleged physical reactions to dreams, but that does not provide any proof that dreams exist.

are we ever unconscious by bernard j baars
Are we ever unconscious?By Bernard J Baars.

Common sense tells us that we become unconscious the moment we fall asleep at night, and come back to full consciousness again in the morning. That idea was challenged when REM sleep was discovered. The EEG traces that signal waking consciousness are fast, irregular and low in voltage. Brain activity in REM sleep looks exactly like that. But their brain activity looked conscious. And of course they gave dream reports when they woke from REM sleep. They reported conscious experiences.

After that, it seemed that sleep could be thought of in terms of stages of varying depth, ranging from the most conscious (REM dreams) to the least conscious, Slow-Wave Sleep. The most radical interpretation is that we are never fully unconscious, even when in deep sleep without dreams. This seems totally against common sense.

the biological function of dreaming threat simulation in the sleeping brain
The Biological Function of Dreaming:Threat Simulation in the Sleeping Brain?

By Antti Revonsuo

One of the persistent mysteries related to human consciousness concerns the function of dreaming. Why does the brain bother to construct a clever simulation of the perceptual world during sleep? Why isn’t the light of

phenomenal experience just switched off for the night,so that we could rest in total subjective silence and darkness, in the total absence of conscious experience? Some theories have suggested that perhaps in dreams we solve our intellectual, creative or emotional problems. Others deny that dreaming has any function whatsoever. A new controversial theory, argues that the true explanation can only be found by placing the dreaming brain in the context in which it evolved. In the ancestral environment, it would have been useful to simulate and rehearse events that were the most crucial ones for survival. Thus, the dreaming brain is originally a threat simulation mechanism that selects and composes simulations of real threats,and how to deal with them, during sleep. Although the original biological function of dreaming is still clearly reflected in the content of our dreams, it is doubtful whether dreaming truly contributes to our survival success anymore. Especially when most of us never encounter the kinds of threats our ancestors dealt with on a daily basis. If the threat simulation theory of dreaming is truth we are the descendants of those ancestral humans whose brains were particularly good at simulating the threats in the environment in which the human brain evolved.

unconscious states caste light on consciousness
Unconscious states caste light on consciousness

Evidence from persistent vegetative states (PVS)

Bernard J Baars

There are some striking similarities between unconscious states. For example, deep sleep shows slow, high, and regular electrical waves in the brain.

But a similar pattern can often be seen in other unconscious states, like some comas, general anaesthesia and the momentary loss of consciousness that affects epileptics. In contrast, conscious states like waking and classical REM dreams show fast, irregular, and short waves. These differences are so obvious that many scientists have thought there must be something fundamental about them. Studying unconscious states may be very revealing of the nature of consciousness.

knowing more than you see thomas zo ga rams y
Knowing more than you seeThomas Zoëga Ramsøy

Normally, we think that we see the entire visual field in front of us. However, careful studies of vision show that this is false. Actually, we are quite poor at seeing details falling outside our focal attention. Studies of change blindness shows that small and large-scale changes in pictures we are looking at can prove difficult to detect. Since it seems that we are blind to even major aspects of natural scenes, significant changes in a large part of the visual field have been repeatedly demonstrated to escape our awareness when blank fields were used between the presentations of two images. There is a huge capacity in the human visual system, other studies show that known visual objects can be rapidly processed by the visual system. The categorisation of natural scenes actually require very little focal attention. Many scientists today are comparing conscious and unconscious visual perception, and still much work needs to be done.

single neurons track your conscious vision j bernard baars
Single neurons track your conscious vision J Bernard Baars

A human brain has about 100 billion neurons, each firing

away many times per second. It is very unusual to observe

single neurons working in the human brain. Yet individual cells are the basic unit of brain function. They are the “atoms” of the nervous system - miniscule, complex, and rich in numbers and connections. A new study has taken a step toward understanding how single brain cells behave in human conscious vision. Normally it is not ethical to insert electrodes into living human brains. However, in patients with intractable epilepsy, recording the activity of specific neurons is the best way to find out which ones start the electrical brainstorms that trigger epileptic fits. While the patients were conscious, up to 10 tiny needle electrodes were inserted in different parts of the inner temporal lobes. Since there are no pain receptors in the brain itself, it does not hurt people to be conscious during brain surgery. In fact, it is vital to ask conscious patients what they experience, to ensure that essential brain tissues are not damaged. Conscious brain processes can be studied by comparing neural events that are reportable as conscious to similar events that are not reportable. consciousness DOES SOMETHING ACTIVE in the brain, even at the level of single neurons.We can now trace some of our personal experience to the activity of the smallest biological unit, the single cell.

unconscious faces cry and laugh
Unconscious faces cry and laugh

When humans perceive the world, they look, listen

and feel at the same time. Many senses join together

in shaping our consciousness every second we are

awake. It is not surprising therefore that some integration can happen even without consciousness, outside of the cortex. A recent study shows that the sight of a fearful face and the sound of a frightened voice can be combined without consciousness, using the amygdala, a subcortical structure. That is presumably because fearful voices and faces occur together in nature. We are probably "prewired" to experience them together, due to our evolutionary history.

Semantic intelligence is required to combine things that do not occur together in nature. And that kind of intelligence seems to involve conscious processes in cortex. The large regions of the brain below cortex do a lot of work. They can integrate information between the senses, such as emotional sounds and sights. But it seems they cannot integrate stimuli that don't go together in nature, like an automobile accident and a fearful voice. That seems to require cortex, and conscious processes.

The integration of emotion without consciousnessBernard J. Baars

pure consciousness in meditation and the self
Pure Consciousness in Meditation and the Self

John G Taylor

Pure Consciousness and the Philosophy of Self

Philosophers and psychologists are converging on the

importance of the primitive component of self.

The primitive self can be related to the more extensive state arising through meditation of so-called ‘pure consciousness’. The primitive self is evident when, for example, one experiences pain. The pain is not first felt and then one notes ‘Oh. I am in pain’. There is no perceptual act which I must perform in order to experience the pain. I do so immediately. This is the source of the ‘transparency’ of consciousness. Your ownership of the pain is immediate and not something that makes you stop and think ‘Is it really me in pain?’ The meditation-based experience of ‘Pure consciousness’ has been seen as providing the missing component of consciousness. It involves content-free awareness, as if consciousness were only conscious of itself. It is then natural to identify this pure conscious experience. leading to inhibition of all content. Pure consciousness is thus to be regarded as the other component of consciousness, beyond that of content.

hypnosis dawn wheeler c ht
Hypnosis Dawn Wheeler, C.Ht.

Hypnosis is a vehicle for self exploration and change. It provides a means for unlocking our innermost thoughts and feelings, so we can finally understand why we think, feel, and act the way we do. Hypnosis is achieved by narrowing the attention to a single focus, setting aside external disruptions and influences, and bringing both the body and conscious mind into a safe, natural state of relaxation. This allows for direct communication with the subconscious mind. The subject is awake, and in complete control at all times, and cannot generally be made to do anything that would conflict with their morals or values. During hypnosis, awareness is heightened on all levels, and receptivity to suggestions is intensified. Positive suggestions can be taken directly into the subconscious for assimilation, and ultimately effect change. The subconscious can actually be retrained. Negative beliefs and patterns can be rewritten. The resulting change can manifest itself emotionally, as well as physically. The possibilities are only limited by what the individual is willing to do, think and believe.

near death experiences
Near Death Experiences

"What are near-death experiences and are they

some kind of OBEs?“Kenneth Ring

The near-death is the record of conscious experience from the inside rather than the outside. Many stated that the experience was not like a dream: they stressed that it was too real, being more vivid and more realistic; however some aspects were hard to express, as the experience did not resemble anything that had happened to them before. most interesting findings concerned the stages of the experience. Earlier stages tended to be reported more frequently. The first stage is peace. The next stage, feeling of being separate or detached from everything that was happening. Next stage is 'entering the very peaceful blackness.' The next stage was 'seeing the light.' The light was sometimes at the end of the tunnel, sometimes glimpsed in the distance but usually it was golden and bright without hurting the eyes. Sometimes the light was associated with a presence of some kind, or a voice

telling the person to go back. In the last stage, experiencers

who seemed to 'enter the light' and pass into or just glimpse

another world. This was described as a world of great beauty,

with glorious colors, meadows of golden grass, birds singing,

or beautiful music. It was at this stage that people were

greeted by deceased relatives, and it was from this world

that they did not want to come back.

reflection on consciousness
Reflection on Consciousness

Consciousness is an extremely complex construction. Consciousness helps in our dealings with our environment and the people in it. State of consciousness is constructed from a few components: basic awareness, self-awareness, and structures, (traits, skills, attitudes).

Consciousness, especially unconsciousness, already fascinated me from an early age. As a young child I remember myself wondering about my dreams and their meanings, searching

for answers in literature. That is the reason why, in this portfolio, so much attention is placed onto dreams, which are the center of our unconsciousness, and the focus of my interests.

As a teen, I joined a meditation group, (Transcendental Meditation of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi), along with my parents and two brothers. The experience was unbelievable! The fact that my whole family did it, helped us stick with the meditation for a while. The daily practice truly helped me, from relaxation to energizing my body & soul. I still remember my coach, my mantra, even the room’s smell, after more than 20 years. That is how powerful it was.


Creating this portfolio was an extraordinary experience for me. As a

graduate Graphic Designer student, to combine my design knowledge

and skills, along with research on intelligence, personality,

& consciousness was a real challenge. To find and determine the perfect-matching art work for each topic

was essential to create harmony. The work was fascinating and stimulating. I consider this

resulting portfolio to be my personal finale.

Neta Litvin

Fall 2003

Psychology 202

Dr. R. King


Baars, J. B. (December 2002). Are we ever unconscious?

Baars, J. B. (October 2002) Unconscious faces cry and laugh:

Baars, J. B. (2002). The impossibility of not thinking.

Baars, J. B. (2002). Single neurons track your conscious vision.

Baars, J. B. (January 2003). Unconscious states cast light on consciousness.

Boeree, C. G. Theories of Personality Shippensburg University

Carter, R. (2002) Exploring consciousness. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

De Seve, K.(Nov. 2001).Animal intelligence: How brainy are they? Science world. New York: Vol. 58 Gardner, H. (1993). Recognizing multiple Intelligences.

Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. N.Y. Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (December 1983) Frames of Mind. Basic Books

Gilman, L (Fall 2001). The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.Goodall, J. (Oct. 1998).Her amazing Chimpanzee discoveries. Storyworks. New York: Vol. 6, pg. 23.

Harvard College. (1999). Project SUMIT. Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

From the Web at:

Maurer, M. (July 2000). The Personality of Freedom.

Priddy, C.R. (1999). The Human Whole. Oslo.

Revonsuo, A (2002)The Biological Function of Dreaming: Threat Simulation in the Sleeping Brain?

Ring, Kenneth. (1980). Life at Death. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan

Tart, C. T. (1975). States of Consciousness. E.P. Dutton & Co., New York.Taylor, J. T. (2003). Pure Consciousness in Meditation and the Self. King’s College, London

The dreams foundations (1996) Lucid Dreaming & Dream Consciousness. AND Dreams - Practical Meaning & Waking Life Applications.

Wheeler, C. D. Ht. Mind Over Matter - Hypnosis

Zoëga Ramsøy, T. (2002). Knowing more than you see.

Erikson, E. Erikson’s Eight Stages of Personality Development

From the Web at: Sessions/Session_11/sld031.htm

artists bibliography
Artists Bibliography

Asberry Augusta. Three Dancers and Gold Ribbon (page 8)

Buonarroti Michelangelo. The Creation of Adam (summary page)

Cheret Jules. La Loie Fuller(page 8)

Collins Charles. (1999). Ocean of Consciousness (page 21)

Dyck Terrence Jon Life Sign: Dreams (page 27)

Haenraets, Willem Musical Moments. (page 8)

Herzer Carol. (1987) Unconscious(page 23)

KlimtGustav. Emile Floge.The Kiss(1907-08) (page 9),Acqua Mossa(page 17),DieTanzerin(page 18),Lady with Hat(page 19),The Virgin(page 40).

Martinez John Ariadne auf Naxos (page 14)

Monet Claude. Monet's Daughter Painting in a Landscape (page 7)

Mucha Alfons. (1898) Dance (page 14)

Parrish Maxfield (1913) Reveries (page 24). Morning (page 39).

Parkes Michael. Desert Dream. (page 26)

Salvador Dali (1968-70 ) El torero hallucinogene(page 28)

Renoir Pierre Auguste (1881). Luncheon of the Boating Party. (page 7)