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Vocabulary Instruction Word Consciousness & word-learning Strategies. Why? What? How? Jen Madison Lenny Vermaas firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com June 11, 2010. Facets of Purposeful Vocabulary Instruction. Provide rich and varied language experiences
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Vocabulary Instruction Word Consciousness & word-learning Strategies Why? What? How? Jen Madison Lenny Vermaas firstname.lastname@example.org@esu6.org June 11, 2010
Facets ofPurposeful Vocabulary Instruction • Provide rich and varied language experiences • discussion, focused attention on words, being read to, wide and frequent reading • Foster word consciousness • Awareness, interest in words and their meanings, understanding of communicative power of language • Teach word-learning strategies • Using context, using morphology (word parts), using a dictionary • Teach individual words (Graves, 2006)
Important and Relevant! • What is one of the most important and relevant ideas from yesterday? • Name it. • Describe it. • Explain its benefits.
Essential Questions • Why should I attend to word consciousness, rich language experiences, and word-learning strategies? • What are effective word-learning strategies? • How might I effectively teach students to use word-learning strategies? • How might I foster word consciousness and provide rich language experiences?
Text Protocols Methods of exploring texts through purposeful reading and discussion structures National School Reform Faculty: http://www.nsrfharmony.org/protocol/learning_texts.html
Why should I attend to word consciousness, Language Experiences, and word-learning strategies? Explain why teaching word-learning strategies, providing rich language experiences, and fostering word consciousness is important.
Why should I attend to word consciousness, rich language experiences, and word-learning strategies? • Text Study • Read your assigned text to answer the essential question. • Consider especially: • Description of the Facet • Rationale • Significant Information • Words to Study
A Few Texts… Providing Rich and Varied Language Experiences (together) • Graves 38-43 Promoting Word Consciousness • Graves 32-33; Graves 119-139 • Honig, et.al. 569-601 • Scott & Nagy in Baumann & Kame’enui 201-217 Teaching Word-Learning Strategies • Graves 23-32; 91-118 • Baumann et.al. in Hiebert & Kamil 179-206 • Diamond & Gutlohn (CORE) 74-150
Why should I attend to word consciousness, rich language experiences, and word-learning strategies? • Which reasons are most compelling to you? • What concerns or questions must be addressed?
How might I effectively teach students to use word-learning strategies? Know (and ultimately teach) word-learning strategies. Dictionary Use Morphemic Analysis Contextual Analysis
Teaching Any Strategy • Motivate, Prime • anticipatory set, provide purpose, encourages focus • Describe, Explain • what, why, when, how • Model • accurate, accessible demonstration • Guided Practice • collaborative use, gradual release of responsibility, error correction, extensive discussion & feedback • Independent Practice • over time, diverse tasks, planning for transfer, feedback, learner reflection • Closure • Learner generalization, summary of important information
Word-Learning Strategies • Dictionary Use • Contextual Analysis • Morphemic Analysis (word structure) • Strategies for Understanding New Words
Dictionary Use • Definition + Context = Most Effective • Beneficial to teach how – even older students (Graves, 2006, p. 32) • Select appropriate dictionary • Online, electronic? • Definition style? • Corpus (“collection or body of knowledge…”)?
It’s the 1960’s: What is being described? “…a disappointment, a shock, a calamity, a scandal and a disaster” (Atlantic Monthly) “a non-word deluge... monstrous...abominable...a cause for dismay” (Life) It took 300 scholars 27 years to complete. Cost = $3.5 million “…deplorable…a flagrant example of irresponsibility” (American Bar Association) “The work would accelerate the deterioration of the language…” (New York Times)
American Heritage Dictionary 4th Ed., 2006 • Over 500 new words • Amber Alert, blogosphere, gravitino, halo effect, hawala, lycopene, malware, micropolis, proteome, Qi Gong, SARS, shout-out, speed dating, sudoku, Texas hold'em, text message, wiki
Dictionary Use • General Guidelines for Use • Look for multiple entries for the word; choose the one closest in context. • Remember that many words have more than one meaning; read all definitions. • Know how the dictionary works (e.g., order of definitions, variant forms, usage notes) • For more information: • The Vocabulary Book, p. 111 • Teaching Reading Sourcebook, p. 506
Types of Dictionaries • Prescriptive • prescribes formal use • what shouldbe • Webster’s Second International (1934) • The Random House Dictionary (1966) • Descriptive • describes popular/conventional usage • what is • Webster’s Third (1961) • American Heritage, 3rd (1969) & 4th (2001)
word syllabication variant spellings pronunciations inflected forms parts of speech labels definitions idioms etymologies usage notes synonyms and more… The Entry
Homographs Graph = written • Words spelled alike, but with different origins and different meanings • Distinguished by superscript numbers • How many homographs are there for fast or up? homo = same
Spelling Variants • Most frequently used spelling listed first • Primary Variant • separated from main entry by “or” • equally accepted • Secondary Variant • separated from main entry by “also” • not as commonly accepted • Plough or plow? Which is the most commonly accepted spelling?
Forms of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs changed to express different meanings and relationships within sentences number (plural/singular) What is the plural of analysis? How is it pronounced? tense (past, perfect) What is the past tense of dream? degrees (comparison of modifiers) What is the superlative form of the adverblittle? Inflected Forms
Labels • Number (plural or singular) • Field Labels (biol., theo., sports, etc.) • Usage Labels • nonstandard • informal • slang • vulgar/offensive, obsolete, archaic, rare, poetic, regional, British, foreign-language • What labels are used for the word family?
Definitions: Ah, what is love? • AHD lists central meaning first • subsequent definitions follow semantic order • relative closeness to central meaning • The Old Oxford lists the earliest definition first • M-W 3rd also lists oldest “modern” definition first • What islove?
social expressions meaning is more than sum of parts listed bold-faced following major word (depending on dictionary) kick the bucket chew the fat hit the hay keep at it by heart Idioms
Idiomatic expression consisting of a verb and a preposition Listed with the verb get after figure out put off foul up Grammar Review verb action preposition shows relationship The squirrel ran ____ the tube. Phrasal Verbs
Etymology • Shown in brackets [ ] preceding the definition • Word origins • What are the origins of the homographs of ball (a spherical object; a dance)?
Synonyms • Words that share a basic meaning • May be significant differences in shades of meaning • considerhate • considerimaginary
“Instruction related to dictionary definitions should be simple and direct and involve children in analyzing dictionary definitions in the course of vocabulary instruction.” (Stahl, 2005 qtd. in Honiget.al., p. 489)
Dictionary Use – How? • Set (motivation, focus) • Explanation of topic, skill, guidelines • Modeling • Practice (gradual release of responsibility)
Guidelines for Using the Dictionary • Read all the Entries • Read all the Different Meanings in an Entry • Choose the Meaning that Makes Sense • For more information: • Teaching Reading Sourcebook, p. 506
Word-Learning Strategies • Dictionary Use • Contextual Analysis • Morphemic Analysis (word structure) • Strategy for Understanding New Words
“More than 60% of the new words that readers encounter have relatively transparent morphological structure—that is, they can be broken down into parts.” (Nagy et.al., 1989, p. 279 qtd in Graves, 2006, p. 103)
Morphemic Analysis • “Morphology is the system by which morphemes combine to construct and represent the meaning of words” (Bowers, 2010). Bowers, P. (30 May 2010). Meta-analysis of morphological intervention studies. Vocabulogic. Retrieved 6.5.10 from http://vocablog-plc.blogspot.com/2010/05/meta-analysis-of-morphological.html)
Morphemic Anlaysis • Morpheme – smallest unit of meaning • roots • prefixes • suffixes "Morphological knowledge is a wonderful dimension of the child's uncovering of "what's in a word," and one of the least exploited aids to fluent comprehension" (Wolf, 2007, p. 130). (http://www.wordworkskingston.com/)
Sequence of Instruction: Morphemic Analysis • inflectional suffixes • compound words • prefixes and derivational suffixes w/ Anglo-Saxon root words • Greek forms • Latin roots • Greek and Latin roots plus affixes
Types of Morphemes • Free Morphemes • can stand alone as words • Anglo-Saxon Root Words: help, play, run • Bound Morphemes • cannot stand alone as words • Prefixes: dis-, in-, re-, un- • Derivational Suffixes: -ful, -less, -ly • Inflectional Suffixes: -ed, -es, -ing, -s • Greek Forms: bio, chron, tele • Latin Roots: dict, ject, struct (Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006, p. 76)
Occur before bases • Have clear meaning • Can alter meaning of root • Consistently spelled
Derivational Suffixes • follow base words • may carry abstract, difficult to explain meaning • change part of speech Inflectional Suffixes • grammatical function • tense (-ed, -ing) • number (-s, -es) • degree (-er, -est)
Greek & Latin Roots • Greek Forms • Tend to be more consistent in meaning • e.g. therm = heat (thermos, thermometer, thermostat, exothermic reaction, thermonuclear) • Use combining forms similar to formation of compound words (any order) • e.g. Bio: biosphere (beginning) or astrobiology (after another form) • Often specialized words used mostly in science and technology
Text Study Ebbers, S. (2008). A root awakening: Vocabulary instruction for older students…” • Four A’s Protocol
Gradual Progression • Simple to complex (Ebbers, 2008, p. 97)
Morphemic Analysis: Basic Instructional Routine • Rationale & Objective • Explicit Instruction • Model and student rehearsal of pronunciation • Definition, Origin • Examples and nonexamples • Guided Practice to Independent Practice • Clarification, confirmation • Read morpheme in a few words, phrases, sentences, academic text) • Infer meanings by examining words with common roots (Ebbers, 2008, 97)
REWARDS Covert Strategy for reading polysyllabic words • Look for prefixes, suffixes, and vowels. • Say the parts of the word. • Say the whole word. • Make it a real word. reconstruction
Word-Learning Strategies • Dictionary Use • Contextual Analysis • Morphemic Analysis (word structure) • Strategy for Understanding New Words • Cognate Awareness
Sequence of Instruction: Contextual Analysis • in read-alouds • in independently read text • types of context clues (definition, synonym, antonym, example, general)
Contextual Analysis • Student DO learn word meanings from context • Low chance with single encounter • Increased chances with additional encounters • Share limitations
Limitations of Context Clues • Misdirective • The clues seem to direct the reader to an incorrect meaning. • “She looks so happy in her party dress,” said Tina maliciously. • Nondirective • The clues seem be of no assistance; a number of meanings could be inferred. • When I answered the phone, I heard my sister’s agitated voice.
Teaching Contextual Analysis • Facets to Consider: • General understanding of context clues (including limitations) • Specific types of context clues • types, signal words • Repeated use with planned and authentic texts • In combination with other strategies (especially morphemic analysis)
Using Context Clues • Look for clues or hints (words, phrases) to figure out the unfamiliar word. • Look in the sentence first. Then look in the sentences before and after. • Using the clues, guess a meaning. • Try out the meaning. Does it make sense?
Contextual Analysis - Types • Definition A congois a barrel-shaped drum. • Appositive Definition At night you can see constellations, or groups of stars in the sky.