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Chapter 11 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

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  1. Chapter 11 Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact 500-1500

  2. Section 1 – The Byzantine Empire

  3. The New Rome • Empire was divided in 395 • In 527, Justinian took over the East • South to make the West great again • Took Rome back from the Germanic tribes (changed hands 6 times in 16 years) • Even though they took back Italy, the East had become the “New Rome”

  4. Justinian Code • One of Justinian’s first acts will be to update the lawsof the Byzantine Empire • Used a panelof expertsto compile the 4 parts • Final product had 4parts • Code– 5000Roman laws that were carried over • Digest– Summarized the opinionsof top thinkersabout laws • Institutes– law textbookfor how to use the law • Novellae– the newlaws

  5. Changing the Capital • Justinian sought to rebuild Constantinople • Focused on Churchbuilding • Hagia Sophia was his greatest achievement • Most significantly, Byzantine culture preserved Greco-Roman culture because of their interest in learning/arts

  6. The East Falls • Justinian’sdeath triggered the slow collapse of the Empire • Bubonicplague was killing 10,000/day • Location put them under constant attacks • Used diplomacyto try to keep the empire together • After centuries of struggling to stay alive, Constantinople fell in 1453

  7. Division of the Church • The cultural differences between East/West also affected religion • Arguments over things like whether iconscould be used led to the East/West religious leaders excommunicatingeach other in 1054 • Orthodoxin the Byzantine Empire(the East)– led by emperor • Catholicin the Roman Empire(West) – led by the pope

  8. Section 2 – The Russian Empire

  9. Russia’s Birth • Because of the crossroads of trade networks, the Slavsin Northern Europe embraced Greek Byzantine culture • Originally went from the Uralsto the Balticand south to the BlackSea • Originally inhabited by tribes who spokethe same languagebut were not united

  10. Growth • Originally the Slavs were controlled by the Vikings • Eventually, Kievbecame the capital because it offered quick access to trade routes • Vladimirwill be responsible for converting Russia to Christianity (EasternOrthodox)

  11. Kiev’s Power • Kiev will be the center of growth for Russia • Vladimir initially expands to Poland • 1019– Yaroslav the Wisetakes Kiev to greater heights • diplomacyand marriagesto achieve peace and power • Legal Code to make trading more secure (like Justinian)

  12. Fall of Kiev • Started with the death of Yaroslavin 1054 • Crucial error • Dividedthe realm among his sons • Sons go to war with each other • In addition, the Crusadesdisrupted trade • Just when things couldn’t get worse…

  13. Mongol Invasions • 1200s, Mongols, led by GenghisKhan, left Asia for Europe • Savage brutality • At their peak, they controlled China, Mongolia, and Russia all the way to the Baltic Sea • 1240, Genghis’ grandsondemolished Kiev • “No eye remained to weep”

  14. Mongol Rule over Russia • 200 years of Mongol control over Russia became known as the “Khanate of the Golden Horde” • Left Russian customs (religion) aloneas long as: • Absolute obedience • Pay tribute • Result of Mongol control: isolationfrom the West

  15. Russian Revolution • The Russianprinces gathered respect and power from the Mongol controllers slowly but steadily • Ivan I moved the capital to Moscowwhere they slowly grew in wealth and power

  16. An Empire Begins • Ivan III will introduce the Russian Empire • Took power and immediately challenged Mongol control • Named himself Czar(Russian Caesar) • Refused to pay tribute • Raised an army to fight Mongols • Both armies will square off but refuse to fight and return home • Russia counts this as their moment of liberation

  17. Section 3 – Turkish Empires

  18. Losing Control • Over 114 years (756-868), the Abbasidslostmore an more of their empire • Spain • Morocco • Tunisia • Persia • Egypt • In 945, the Persians put an end to Muslim political control over the region

  19. Seljuks • The Persians were not able to hold the region for long • The Turkswere a nomadic group that survived by herding animals • Good fighters • One group of Turks began settling in the region (Seljuks) • Turkish slaves (mamelukes) had become a major force of the AbbasidEmpire • They turned on the Persians in 1055and took control

  20. Persian Support • The Seljuksdid not have to worry about rebellionsbecause they treated the conquered Persians with respect • Positions of power • Citieswere important • Convertedto Islam • Persian terms • Rulers were called Shahs (Persian for King)

  21. Seljuksvs Crusaders • When Malik Shah died in 1092, the Seljuk Turks lost control of the region • At the same time, the West launched a campaign to reclaim the Holy Land from Muslims • Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade in 1095 • Conquered Jerusalem in 1099 and slaughtered Jewish and Muslim inhabitants

  22. Weakening Wars • Seljuk Muslims will regain strength (led by Saladin) and takebackJerusalem in 1187 • English King Richard I and Saladinsign a truceto share Jerusalem • New popes called for new Crusades but each was weakerthan the last

  23. New Problems • Mongolswere not just a problem in Europe • Genghis Khan’s grandson, Hulagu, will destroy everyone • Turks (political) • Abbasids (religious)