Chapter 11 National and Regional Growth
Essential Question? • What forces and events affected national unity and growth? • What is the Industrial Revolution?
The American Revolution • After the war of 1812- America experienced a new revolution. • Industrial Revolution • 1. Factory Machines • 2. Large scale manufacturing producing huge quantities of goods.
Factories Rise in New England • 1793: Samuel Slater: builder of the first water powered textile mill in America. • It was illegal for British textile workers to leave the country – Fear of copying these ideas. • Slater brought the secrets to America. • New England was a good place to build factories because of the fast moving rivers, and access to the ocean.
Factory System: brought many workers and machines together under one roof. • Because of the British Naval blockade from the war of 1812, America needed to manufacture their own goods. • Lowell Mills hire women – U.S. textile industry – 1814- Ran on water power.
New Manufacturing Methods Spread • Eli Whitney – made gains for the U.S. Government first by using interchangeable parts: instead of making one at a time. • 1. sped up production • 2. Easy Repairs • 3. Use of less skilled workers.
New Inventions Improve Life • Transportation and Communication • Robert Fulton: an inventor that developed a steamboat that could move against the current or a strong wind. • Clermont : nicknamed “Fulton’s Folly” because it looked silly but it made the 300 mile round trip from New York to New Albany and back in a record 62 hours.
Peter Cooper- built 1st American successful steam powered locomotive called the Tom Thumb. • Samuel F.B. Morse- 1st telegraph – This machine sent electric long and short pulses that could be translated into letters spelling out messages.
Technology Improves Farming • 1837- John Deere- invented a lightweight plow- steel cutting edge • Threshing machine (Andrew Meikles) • Mechanical Reaper (Cyrus McCormick) • These inventions improved agricultural production by making farm work quicker and more efficient.
Section 2 Plantations and Slavery Spread • Cotton Gin- Machine made for cleaning cotton much faster. Inventor was Eli Whitney. The cotton gin helped the South on a very different course of economic development than the North. (1pd by hand .. 50 by gin)
The Cotton Boom • Industrial Revolution – Increased number of goods being produced. Increased demand for raw materials. • Slavery Expands • (1790- 1860) • Cotton production increases along with slavery. The demand for slavery grew. • 1808- illegal to import slaves • 1810-1840 the birth rate of enslaved slaves more than doubles.
Southern Support for Slavery • Slavery divided white southerners into two groups. • Ones who had slaves • Ones who did not 1/3 of white families had slaves 1/10 had large plantations with 20 or more slaves All hoped one day to have enough money to afford slaves.
African Americans in the South • 1804- 1/3 population was enslaved people • Slaves lived with cruel conditions. • Slavery Video • Not all worked on Plantations – servants, craftspeople, factory hands, day laborers. • Slaves were considered property • 1840- 5% of African Americans were free • 1. born free 2. bought freedom 3. freed by owner
Problems of Free Slaves • Most states made them leave once free • No voting or education • They were refused jobs by employers • They feared being caught and sold back into slavery
Families Under Slavery • Cruelest part was the selling of family members • Fredrick Douglass- resisted slavery – escaped to the North • Slave Rebellions • Nat Turner – Famous Rebellion (Virginia) Killing of white men, women, and children. Turner was captured when ammunition ran out. Turner’s rebellion led many in the south to spread fear. Southerners killed many to avenge.
A Common Culture • The common culture helped enslaves people bond together and endure the brutal conditions. • Religion was the cornerstone of African American Culture • Spirituals- Folk songs that were often religious in nature • Some spirituals had coded messages about escaping or unexpected return of owner
African American Spirituals had a strong influence on blues, jazz, and other forms of American music. • Follow the Drinking Gourd • Swing Low Sweet Chariot • Wade in the Water
Section 3 Nationalism and Sectionalism • War of 1812 increased : Nationalism- feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness towards your nation. • Henry Clay – He was a strong nationalist • 1. he wanted to strengthen country • 2. Unify its regions
Nationalism Unites the Country • Madison wanted to be successful without foreign products • The American System-( A plan by Henry Clay) • Had 3 main actions • 1. Protective Tariff- a tax on imported goods that protect a nation’s businesses from foreign competition. • 2. National Bank (need a single currency) • 3. Improve the nation’s transportation systems.
The Era of Good Feeling • Democratic –Republican party candidate – James Monroe (Won Presidency of 1816) • Federalist Party will disappear after the election • Political Difference end called (Era of Good Feelings)
Several Landmarks • 1. promoted national unity by strengthening the national government • 2. State could not tax a national bank • 3. Interstate commerce could by regulated by federal government (not state government’s)
Transportation Links Cities • In 1806, Congress funded a road from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling West Virginia. It was called a national road. • Water transportation improved of building canals. (1790- 1855) (Age of Canals) • Erie Canal: created a water route New York City to Buffalo, NY. • Into Great Lakes Region • RR improvements led to decline in canal use. • 1830- 23 miles of rails (1850- 9000 miles of rails)
Sectional Tensions Increase • Sectionalism threatened to tear the nation apart. • Sectionalism: loyalty to the interests of a region or section of a country • South: relied on plantation economy (Slaves) • North East: Focused on manufacturing and trade. • West – settlers wanted cheap land (mostly in conflict)
Sectionalism was a big problem in Missouri. Applied for statehood in 1817 • Missouri wanted to be added as a slave state. • At the time, there were 11 slave states and 11 free states • Adding Missouri as a slave state would upset balance of power in Congress.
The Missouri Compromise • Southern states feared the un-shift in balance and that Congress would ban slavery altogether. • The Senate passed a plan called Missouri Compromise • Missouri Compromise: laws enacted in 1820 to maintain balance of power between slave and free states. It called for slavery to be banned north of the parallel 36 degrees 30 of Missouri’s southern border.
Mason Dixon Line- Formed between Pennsylvania and Maryland was a divide between free and slave states.
Natural Boundaries and Foreign Affairs • Wanted defined boundaries had to deal with Spain and Great Britain. • Great Britain • 1. Convention of 1818: set U.S. Canadian Border • 2. 49th Parallel as far west as the Rocky Mountains. Relations with Spain were tense The two nations disagreed on boundaries of Louisiana Purchase and ownership of west Florida - Pirates and Run away slaves used East Florida as a refuge.
General Andrew Jackson followed Seminoles into Spanish Territory and captured two cities • 1. Pensacola • 2. Saint Marks Monroe ordered Jackson to withdraw but gave Spain a choice 1. Police the Florida’s 2. Turn over Florida to the U.S.
Adams – Onis Treaty of 1819- Spain handed over Florida and gave up claims of Oregon Country.
Monroe Document • Closed to further colonization • Warned that European efforts to reestablish colonies would be dangerous to our peace and safety. • U.S. Policy opposing European interference in the Western Hemisphere. • U.S. would stay out of European Affairs • U.S. seen as a world power and protector of Latin America.