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Nationalism and Sectionalism during the Age of Jackson. The 19 th Century expansion of the United States demonstrated both a strong spirit of nationalism and a growing sectional divide between the North and the South.

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nationalism and sectionalism during the age of jackson
Nationalism and Sectionalism during the Age of Jackson

The 19th Century expansion of the United States demonstrated both a strong spirit of nationalism and a growing sectional divide between the North and the South.

the war of 1812

Nationalism exerted a strong influence in the courts, foreign affairs, and westward expansion in the early 1800s.

The War of 1812
the war of 18121

Nationalism exerted a strong influence in the courts, foreign affairs, and westward expansion in the early 1800s.

The War of 1812
  • The War of 1812 encouraged Nationalism.
    • The territorial boundaries of the United States were secure—defeat of Native Americans and the British.
    • Peace between the United States and Great Britain—beginning of a long partnership.
    • End of the Federalist Party—they had supported peace in December 1814 at the Hartford Convention.
    • America had survived “the second American revolution”—The U.S. Constitution and the federal government survived.
    • a new national identity—symbolism—“Star Spangled Banner”, “Uncle Sam”
    • new American hero—Andrew Jackson
american system

Nationalism exerted a strong influence in the courts, foreign affairs, and westward expansion in the early 1800s.

American System
  • Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, promoted President Madison’s plan to unify the nation as the America System
    • Develop transportation systems and other internal improvements
    • Establish a protective tariff
    • Establish a second national bank
supreme court decisions

Nationalism exerted a strong influence in the courts, foreign affairs, and westward expansion in the early 1800s.

Supreme Court Decisions
  • The Supreme Court under John Marshall’s leadership made decisions that strengthened the federal government and encouraged the growth of business.
supreme court decisions1

Nationalism exerted a strong influence in the courts, foreign affairs, and westward expansion in the early 1800s.

Supreme Court Decisions
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
  • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
monroe doctrine

Nationalism exerted a strong influence in the courts, foreign affairs, and westward expansion in the early 1800s.

Monroe Doctrine
  • In his 1823 message to Congress, President Monroe warned all outside powers not to interfere with the affairs of the Western Hemisphere
  • European powers should not attempt to create new colonies or try to overthrow new independent republics in the hemisphere
  • The U.S. would consider such action “dangerous to our peace and safety”
  • In addition, the U.S. would not involve itself in European affairs
sectionalism
Sectionalism

The North and the South developed different

Economic systems that led to political

Differences between the regions.

  • Industrial Revolution
    • During the 19th Century factories became the centers of industry.
    • New approaches to manufacturing, such as interchangeable parts, took industry out of American households and artisan’s workshops
    • Factory system used power-driven machinery and laborers assigned to different tasks which made mass production possible.
sectionalism1
Sectionalism

The North and the South developed different

Economic systems that led to political

Differences between the regions.

  • Industrial Revolution
    • First began in Great Britain when inventors came up with ways to generate power using streams/rivers and coal.
    • Thomas Jefferson’s Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812 forced Americans to become more self sufficient and industrial
    • The biggest push to develop industry occurred in New England where the shipping industry had declined due to lack of trade.
sectionalism2
Sectionalism

The North and the South developed different

Economic systems that led to political

Differences between the regions.

  • Industrial Revolution
    • 1793, a British immigrant Samuel Slater started first mechanized textile factory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island
    • 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell built a weaving factory in Waltham, Massachusetts
    • Thousands of people-mostly young women-traveled to Lowell, Massachusetts to find work (Lowell Girls)
sectionalism3
Sectionalism

The North and the South developed different

Economic systems that led to political

Differences between the regions.

  • Cotton is King in the South
    • Eli Whitney’s invention of the Cotton gin in 1793 helped the South develop differently from the North. Short staple cotton was easier to grow but harder to clean. Whitney’s gin changed that.
    • Cotton was in high demand in Great Britain and in the North
    • By 1820 the plantation system of farming had made Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama a booming Cotton Kingdom
sectionalism4
Sectionalism

The North and the South developed different

Economic systems that led to political

Differences between the regions.

  • Cotton is King in the South
    • Cotton gin accelerated the expansion of slavery
    • From 1790 to 1810 cotton production increased from 3,000 bales a year to 178,000 bales.
    • The number of slaves in the South jumped from 700,000 to 1.2 million
missouri compromise
Missouri Compromise
  • In 1819, when Missouri petitioned for statehood, conflict arose.
  • Government had admitted Illinois as eleventh free state. Politicians assumed Missouri would enter the union as a slave state.
  • N.Y. Congressmen amended the Missouri statehood bill to require the state to gradually free its slaves. Southerners blocked passage of the bill
  • During the debates, Alabama was admitted as the 11th slave state
  • Missouri’s status became crucial to the balance
missouri compromise2
Missouri Compromise
  • Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state
  • Rest of Louisiana territory was split into two spheres of interest, one for slaveholders and one for free states.
  • The dividing line was set at 36.30’ north latitude. South of the line slavery was legal. North of the line, with the exception of Missouri, slavery was banned.
assignment
Assignment
  • The year is 1828. You are a senator from a Southern state. Congress has just passed a high tax on imported cloth and iron in order to protect Northern industry. The tax will raise the cost of these goods in the South and will cause Britain to buy less cotton. Southern states hope to nullify, or cancel, such federal laws that they consider unfair.
  • Would you support the federal or state government?