AS Media Studies Media Forms
**Media Platforms** – the technology through which we receive media products (broadcasting, print, e-media) • **Media Forms** – the distinguishing characteristics of types of media products. • What would you expect to see and hear in a trailer for a disaster movie? • What would you expect to see in a TV newsroom set?
To identify a media form... • Voiceover • Short in length • Music • Clips from film • date of release • “Coming soon!” • actors and actresses • mini narrative Film Trailer Characteristics or CODES AND CONVENTIONS Codes and Conventions = newsreader BBC English Events – local, national and global Headlines reporters Platform = Broadcast, Print and E-media Form = News
GENRE • The term used for the classification of media texts into groups with similar characteristics. • It is useful in looking at the ways in which media texts are organised, categorised and consumed. • Am important element in identifying genre is the look or ICONOGRAPHY of the text. **key term** iconography – the particular signs we associate with particular genres, such as physical attributes and dress of actors, the settings and typical props (cars, guns etc)
GENRE • Complete the following table... GENRE Codes /Conventions Iconography Horror Gangster Western Romantic Comedy
GENRE Expectations and pleasures • Audiences understand genre through their familiarity with the codes and conventions used in the text. • They take pleasure in familiarity as well as anticipating a new twist. • They enjoy the mixture of repetition and variation and find it reassuring.
Genre – the ‘chick flick’ • Slightly derisive term • Formulated romantic comedies • Tearjerkers • Family crisis • Emotional catharsis • Empowered females • Female bonding situations • Female protagonist or heroine
GENRE • Genres develop and change with changes in technology, popular culture and the nature of audiences. • Producers have to continually come up with something fresh to keep audiences entertained. • Genres that are a mixture of existing ones are called HYBRID GENRES.
Genre = Teenage Sub Genre = Romance = Horror = Fantasy = Vampire Movie
Hybrid genres Genres • Horror • Crime • Western • Comedy • Action • Thriller • Sci-fi Hybrids • Docusoap • Reality/gameshow • Romantic comedy • Eg. Scream – teenage/slasher/ horror/comedy? • Sub-Genres • Supernatural • Film noir • Chick flicks • Tearjerkers • Disaster • Spy • Fantasy **Add notes to worksheet**
Postmodernism • Many modern texts are postmodern. • Ideas, styles and icons are taken from another medium and reworked into a new text. • This is called INTERTEXTUALITY. • Audiences enjoy recognising and understanding intertextuality. • Advertisers rely on our recognition of intertextuality in order to get their message across in a short space of time.
Intertextuality • **key term** INTERTEXTUALITY – the way in which texts refer to other media texts that producers assume audiences will recognise. • DANCE – Justin Timberlake borrows dance moves from Michael Jackson. • MUSIC – DJs remixes of popular songs...or the mash-ups in Glee. • FILM – Scary Movie borrows clips from other horror films to create comedy. • FASHION – Lady Gaga influenced by Madonna.
Intertextuality • Is not always obvious... • References can only be recognised if you know what they are referring to. • Cultural, social and linguistic limitations. • People bring their own experiences to the text. • “I’ll have what she’s having.” • Family Guy • PG Tips
Edvard Munch – The Scream Homer Simpson – The Scream
SHREK • Shrek • An animation • Two levels in movie – first, the simple children’s story. • The second level is full of references and quotes (intertextuality) that are probably only decoded by adults. • Watch the clip and note down any intertextual references you see.
Shrek and popular culture Numerous references to American brands. • Burger Prince (Burger King) • Olde Knavery (Old Navy) • Far Far Away sign (Hollywood sign) • Saxon Fifth Avenue (Saks Fifth Avenue) • Versarchery (Versace) • Gap Queen (Gap kids) • Farbucks Coffee Starbucks)
Shrek and fairy tales • “Once upon a time” • “Happily ever after” • Good v bad • Magic • Hansel and Gretel • Red Riding Hood • Peter Pan • Cinderella • Beauty and the Beast
Shrek and popular culture • “Kings are from Mars, Queens are from Venus” • The Oscar’s Award ceremony • Ghost Busters • ET • Mask of Zorro • Flashdance • Cabaret • Mission Impossible • Alien • Spiderman • Beverly Hills Cops • Lord of the Rings
Marketing + Intertextuality • In order for a media product to be promoted successfully, it is advertised extensively. • Trailers on TV for programmes shown later in the schedule. • Documentary ‘exclusives’ advertised on news. • Trailers for new films in the cinema shown on TV. • Celebrity news stories in the press linked to promotion of new book/album/film.
Parody and Homage • Parody – aims to mock an original in a critical way . • Can only be effective through our knowledge of the text or genre that is being parodied. • Cheryl Cole – comedy fight for this love clip • Watch the following trailer for ‘Scary Movie’ – what generic codes and conventions are being parodied?
Homage • HOMAGE suggests respect for a particular text, acknowledging the power and importance of the original by imitating it. • Homage is often experienced in the cinema where a director will deliberately create a scene where intertextual elements combine to pay respect to an earlier creation.
Homage – Film Noir • Neo-noir is a style often seen in modern films and other forms that prominently utilize elements of film noir, but with updated themes, content, style, visual elements or media that were absent in films noir of the 1940s and 1950s. • The Coen Brothers • Seven • Sin City
Activity • Textbook page 20 • Choose a film genre and three films that could be included in it. • Complete the table.
Key questions to ask.. • To which genre does the text belong? • What are the major generic conventions within the text? • What are the main iconographic features of the text? • What are the major generic themes? • To what extent are the characters generically determined? • To what extent are the audience’s generic expectations of the text fulfilled or cheated by the text? Does the text conform to the characteristics of the genre, or does it treat them playfully/ironically? • Does the text feature a star, a director, a writer etc who is strongly associated with the genre? What meanings/associations do they have?