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The ‘One Page Management System’ ( OPMS ). It’s the tool par excellence to transform IDEAS to effective ACTION. The importance of IDEAS :. ALL human accomplishment - individual, organisational or societal - is based on IDEAS

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the one page management system opms

The ‘One Page Management System’(OPMS)

It’s the tool par excellence to transform IDEAS to effective ACTION

the importance of ideas
The importance of IDEAS:
  • ALL human accomplishment - individual, organisational or societal - is based on IDEAS
  • But ideas can get accomplished only when they are effectively acted upon
  • Therefore, we need means to ensure effective action on our available ideas
  • The best of ideas would fail if they are not effectively acted on

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

about ideas
About IDEAS:
  • Bad Ideas (which should NOT be pursued)
  • Trivial Ideas
  • Good, Small Ideas
  • Good, Big Ideas
  • Great & Noble Ideas
  • Ideas that may be impossible to accomplish

“To create educational systems for India that would enable our citizens to accomplish all they are capable of”

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

about ideas1
About IDEAS:
  • Using conventional means, it is not easy to arrive at a realistic understanding of the true value or type of an idea
  • Great accomplishments cannot come out of trivial ideas - trivial ideas would generally lead only to trivial accomplishments
  • Small (but not trivial) ideas - when well handled - may lead to truly worthy accomplishment
  • Great ideas may or may not lead to great accomplishment - they most probably would NOT lead to great accomplishment if not effectively handled and acted upon

“Garibi Hatao!”

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide5

In any case, we do require practical means to enableeffective handling of every worthwhile idea - from inception to final action on the idea

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

ideas may range from apparently simple to apparently very complex
Ideas may range from ‘apparently simple’ to ‘apparently very complex’

But the complexity of an idea is actually a function of our perceptions of it!

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

a couple of important characteristics of ideas
A couple of important characteristics of ideas:
  • An idea may contain any number of other ideas
  • Ideas can be extremely ‘slippery’ if not handled right - they often just disappear - or appear to change from what we wanted to mean!

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

in general handling of ideas for action is a process involving
In general, handling of Ideas for Actionis a process involving:
  • Idea Generation
  • Idea Organisation

InteractiveManagement

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

more about interactive management im

More about Interactive Management (IM):

IM is THE seminal development in general system theory, from Professor John N. Warfield. IM enables us to develop - from our own good ideas - effective, actionable pictures of the systems we work within.

interactive management involves
Interactive Management involves:

• A ‘cybernetic’, ‘systems’ view of the world

  • Human ideas and perceptions - linguistics
  • An integration of human psychology (behavioral issues) with technological concerns - how technology is used in real life
  • “The resolution to a problem must come from the people involved in the problem”

Demands Democracy in the organisation!

Cybernetics: “The science of communicationand control in the animal and the machine”

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide11

Systems Theory: the transdisciplinary study of the abstract organization of phenomena, independent of their substance, type, or spatial or temporal scale of existence. It investigates both the principles common to all complex entities, and the (usually mathematical) models which can be used to describe them

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

to i nteractive m anagement opms adds of integration of ideas
To Interactive Management, OPMS adds of ‘integration of ideas’:
  • Idea Generation
  • Idea Structuring

IM

 Idea Integration

OPMS

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

not just idea generation in the abstract
Not just ‘idea generation in the abstract ’

The underlying idea always being: Enable and Ensure effectiveACTION!

But ‘focussed’Idea Generation

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focus trigger question
Focus ‘trigger question’:

MISSION

“What, in your opinion, are the THINGS TO DO to get the right job for your abilities and interests ?”

“To get the right job for your abilities and interests ?”

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

some missions

Ambitious Missions areaccomplished by ‘stakeholders’ in Mission

Some Missions:

“To propagate OPMS in India and worldwide”

  • “To get the right job for my interests, abilities”
  • “To convince you that the OPMS approach offers a feasible way to go”
  • “To ensure all in the Production Department get highly motivated to perform to the best of their abilities”
  • XYZ Ltd - “To reach turnover of Rs 2000 crores, with PAT of Rs 300 crores, by 2005”
  • “To ensure that the bureaucracy becomes truly responsive to the real needs of citizens”
  • “To cleanse the Ganga”
  • “To ensure 90% literacy in Nation within 10 years”

Rajiv Gandhi’s Mission - failed

Another failedRG Mission

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide16

Ambitious Missions are highly susceptible to failure!! --- The OPMS approach can help us successfully accomplishANY kind of ambitious Mission, whether individual, organisational, or societal

Please note: Not“WILL help”!

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slide17

OPMS just asks: “You have a problem or Mission at hand? Not quite satisfied with the existing means of handling it? Try out theOPMSapproach - it can help you move several significant steps forward!”

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general format of first trigger question in opms approach
General format of ‘first trigger question’ in OPMS approach:

“What, in your opinion, are the THINGS TO DO to accomplish ‘Mission’ ?”

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focussed trigger questions on mission lead to

Developments from ‘brainstorming’

Focussed Trigger Questions on Mission lead to:

Lists of ideas

Idea ‘structuring’

demand

EffectiveOrganisationof Ideas

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide20
Conventional management practices do not do too badly in terms of ‘generating ideas’ - though the usual methods could bear improvement

But conventional mgmt. theory & practice are BOTH extremely deficient indeed in terms of ‘structuring of ideas’ - the concept barely exists!

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

1st step

1st Step:

Generate relevant ideas

(from the people actually involved in the Mission)

mission to double turnover within 1 year
MISSION: “To double turnover within 1 year”

“What, in your opinion, are the THINGS TO…?”

Some ideas generated:

  • Obtain needed finance for basic working capital
  • Explore new, untried markets
  • Launch a new product
  • Appoint a dynamic CEO who knows our business + the markets
  • Create more effective dealer network
  • … (etc, etc)

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okay ideas have been generated
Okay - Ideas have been generated.

Now, those ideas must be effectively organised for action

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slide24

“Does, in your opinion,

To obtain needed finance for basic working capital (1)

contribute

To explore new, untried markets (2)

?” (Response “YES”)

slide25

“Does, in your opinion,

To explore new, untried markets (2)

contribute

To obtain needed finance for basic working capital (1)

?” (Response “NO”)

slide26
What we have done is to record the ‘mental model’ of perceived relationships between two elements in a ‘graphical format’:

To explore new, untried markets (2)

CONTRIBUTES

To obtain needed finance for basic working capital (1)

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slide27

We ask a few more such questions. An important property of the relationship “contributes to” enables us to create the entire model quite efficiently

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slide28

To monitor rigorously, day by day

should contribute

Create more effective dealer network

  • Launch a new product (A)
  • Explore new, untried markets (B)

Create more effective marketing system

Obtain needed finance for basic working capital

Appoint new CEO

Model in THINGS TO DO Dimension (read bottom upwards)

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

the relationship contributes to has the following property
The relationship “contributes to” has the following property:

If A B

AND B C

then A MUST C

(where A,B, C stand for various elements and

‘ ’ stands for “contributes to”

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

does this seem familiar to you
Does this seem familiar to you?

Right! It’s like ‘PERT/CPM’ - which is predicated on basis of the transitive relationship “precedes”

MSProject

Primavera

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide31

External plastering complete

Wall Brickwork complete

Roof complete

Roof Frame complete

House complete

FoundationComplete

Door , WindowFramework complete

External plastering complete

Precedes

So-called Project Planning: Building a House

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if a precedes b then b cannot precede a and the reverse question needs no asking

One difference:

If ‘A’ precedes ‘B’Then ‘B’ cannot precede ‘A’(and the reverse question needs no asking)

However, if ‘A’ “contributes to” ‘B’

‘B’ may still contribute to” ‘A’

i.e., the relationship is ‘reflexive’

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

precedence can help us explore familiar and well known systems

But the BIG difference:

‘Precedence’ can help us explore familiar andwell-known systems

But only the concept of ‘contribution’canenable us to explore and to understand systems containing sizable sections unknown

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide34

Here’s the crux of the matter:

Any Mission is automatically accomplished if ALL the activities that may“contribute to” that Mission are done by people involved

In this sense, the relationship contributes to is probably THE MOST IMPORTANT concept in any language! It is the critical ‘Action Word’.

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide35

This is called an INTENT STRUCTURE

‘Intentions’, connected by perceived ‘contribution’ relationships between the intentions!!

To double turnover within 1 year

To monitor rigorously, day by day

should contribute

To create more effective dealer network

  • To launch a new product (A)
  • To explore new, untried markets (B)

To create more effective marketing system

To obtain needed finance for basic working capital

To appoint new CEO

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide36

Intent Structures may require modifications from time to time

To double turnover within 1 year

Create more effective dealer network

should contribute

  • Launch a new product (A)
  • Explore new, untried markets (B)

Create more effective marketing system

Obtain needed finance for basic working capital

Appoint new CEO

To monitor rigorously, day by day

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide37
When an individual or group starts work on an unknown Mission, it is like someone stepping into a darkened room - without a flashlight.

As these ‘contribution structures’ are developed, the Mission becomes continuingly clarified to the people involved in the Mission (just as the dark room becomes familiar to the explorer through his/her groping around).

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide38

THINGS

TO DO

These models can become as large as required to describe the most complex live situation! Over time, as we work on our Missions, our models may come to comprise hundreds or even thousands of elements!

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide39

THINGS

TO DO

It turns out that this process of structuring with “contributes to” enables the users to focus at any time on just a narrow band of a few ideas!

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide40

THINGS

TO DO

In such models, we can easily ‘fill in the gaps’ wherever found, in almost real-time - thus this process is ideal for creating EFFECTIVE Action Plans

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide41

To double turnover within 1 year

Create more effective dealer network

should contribute

  • Launch a new product (A)
  • Explore new, untried markets (B)

Create more effective marketing system

Obtain needed finance for basic working capital

Appoint new CEO

To monitor rigorously, day by day

Any such model can be translated into ‘standard prose’ very easily indeed! And this little model would translateinto nearly a full page of prose. Obviously, it is MUCH easier to read, understand and remember the model!

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide42

To double turnover within 1 year

Create more effective dealer network

should contribute

  • Launch a new product (A)
  • Explore new, untried markets (B)

Create more effective marketing system

Obtain needed finance for basic working capital

Appoint new CEO

To monitor rigorously, day by day

A quick translation:

Everything we do requires regular monitoring - such as - Obtain needed finance for basic working capital & to appoint a CEO should contribute to Create more effective marketing system which in turn should contribute to Launch a new product and to explore new, untried markets each of which contribute to each other. Also, obtaining needed finance for basic working capital & appointing a CEO should contribute to Launch a new product and to explore new, untried markets …… In turn, Launch a new product and to explore new, untried markets should contribute to create a new dealer network. Also...

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide43

A model of 40-50 elements, occupying maybe 2-3 pages might be the equivalent of 30-40 pages of prose!!!The length of the prose translation expands exponentially as the number of elements increase!

slide44

THINGS

TO DO

Also, the models can be ‘blown up’ as required to the depth and detail as required

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide45
Also, because of the “contribution” relationship, an ‘Action Planning’ model also shows the WHY? and the HOW?of each element...

THINGS

TO DO

WHY?

HOW?

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide46

Up WHY?

To match/surpass productivity of Israeli s/w industry by 2003

should contribute

To ensure high quality of Indian s/w services and products

  • To encourage s/w orgs to spend at least 25% of ttl s/w budget for s/w productivity tools
  • To allow companies to utilise part of their export earnings for means to meet delivery schedules

To..

Down HOW?

WHY?

HOW?

To…

slide47

UPthe model to find out“WHY?”

DOWNthe model to find out “HOW?”

THINGS

TO DO

WHY?

HOW?

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

the model shown ism

The model shown: ISM

Interpretive Structural Model

slide49
Warfield’s ISM process is a grand generalisation of the well known PERT/CPM tool, used in so-called “Project Management Software”

PERT/CPM is based on the transitive relationship “precedes”

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide50

… but “precedence”is NEVER sufficient to describe ALL relevant aspects of a real ‘system’, such as an organisation working to accomplish a challenging Mission!

Warfield’s ISM enables us to use ANYtransitive relationship, choosing exactly the one that is relevant to the issue under consideration at the specific time!

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

transitive relationships in a system

Transitive Relationships in a system:

“contributes to”– crucial for Action Planning - is justone of the transitive relationships.

There are many others…

some more examples of transitive relationships
Some more examplesof transitive relationships:
  • “is more important than”
  • “should have higher priority than”
  • “aggravates”
  • “enhances”
  • “implies”
  • “leads to”
  • (strictly) includes
  • “precedes” (used for PERT Charts – which provide the basis of most conventional ‘Project Management Software’)

Different transitive relationships are appropriate at different parts of the system, at different times!

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide53
The second powerful systems modeling technique invented by Professor John N. Warfield:Field Representation & Profiling…

…helps us clearly portray the

dimensions of a system...

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in brief it is clustering with due consideration of relationships in systems
In brief - it is ‘clustering’ with due consideration of relationships in systems:
  • First, we try to cleanse our minds of all pre-conceived categories..
  • Then, OPMS asks questions like…

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

f ield r epresentation p rofiling contd
Field Representation & Profiling (contd.)

(In the context of the kind of actions needed to overcome the barriers, etc.)

“Is

(B) Low productivity of Indian software industry

SIMILAR TO

(A) Our educational systems are highly ineffective

?”

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide56

Response “YES” would put element ‘B’ into the same category as ‘A’ -“NO” would put it into a different category……yielding models like the one illustrated next …

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide57

Titles createdafter clustering

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slide58

Basically, FR provides a means of ‘clustering’ the elements into “similarity classes” or “categories”.A critical component of a Field Representation is the ‘System Tie-Line’ - which represents any or all of the relationships inherent in the system under consideration.

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide60

The elements are ‘linked’ by appropriate relationships as perceived by the users

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide61

The OPMS provides a facility to enable users write down prose translations of such visual linkages

XYZ

“XYZ” MAY TEND TO INCREASE THE SEVERITY OF“ABC”

ABC

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slide62

It takes a while to develop the skills needed to use the System Tie Line effectively to link different dimensions and elements together…It’s well worth our while to work towards developing these skills…

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide63
…because Field Representations, over sufficient iterations, can be shown to satisfy“Ashby’s Law of Requisite Variety”

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ashby s law of requisite variety simple simon s version

Most deficiencies and failures in organisational & societal systems take root from the fact that the systems in question fail to satisfy Ashby’s Law!

Ashby’s Law of Requisite Variety (Simple Simon’s version)…
  • “The dimensions of a proposed solution to a problem must match the dimensions of the problem”
  • (If too few dimensions, the solution won’t work – if too many, the solution would be too expensive or too complicated!)

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide66

System descriptions and prescriptions developed from Field Representations enable us to discuss true systems meaningfully and ‘actionably’!

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide67

Despite its surface simplicity, this simple categorization can be a very powerful and subtle tool, leading to some comprehensive articulations of the most ‘complex systems’… - for example, the ‘One Page Management System’ …

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide68
To develop an OPMS, we need to ask and respond to six FUNDAMENTAL Questions on the following Dimensions:
  • THINGS TO DO
  • BARRIERS / DIFFICULTIES / THREATS
  • STRENGTHS (Available / Required)
  • WEAKNESSES
  • OPPORTUNITIES (Available / Preparation required to utilise)
  • EVENTS / MILESTONES

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

it s a model of models involving
It’s a ‘model of models’, involving:
  • Idea Generation
  • Idea Structuring

IM

 Idea Integration

OPMS

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide71

The Field Representation shown first was a ‘model of elements’. The OPMS, next slide, is a Field Representation which is actually a MODELOFMODELS!It consists of all the models constructed during the ‘process’ of accomplishing a Mission, crystallized onto a single page.

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide72

Mission: “To recruit and retain talent”

Mission

The System Tie-Line represents any or all of the relationships inherent in the system under discussion

‘Fundamental’ Dimensions of OPMS

System Tie Line

‘System’ Dimensions of OPMS

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide73

Mission: “To recruit and retain talent”

“Contribute to”

“Aggravate”

“lead to”

“Enhance”

“Aggravate”

“Precede”

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide74

The OPMS is a ‘general system framework’ to help us organise our ideas and activities in pursuit of any well-conceived Mission - with a view to enable and ensure effective action

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how is opms different from the conventional project management software e g msproject primavera etc
How is OPMSdifferent from the conventional ‘Project Management Software?’(e.g. MSProject, Primavera, etc)

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide76

Mission: “To recruit and retain talent”

Conventional ‘ProjectManagement Software’

“Precede”

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide78

Help Overcome

Help Overcome

using opms people involved can always see the linkages between the various dimensions of the opms

Using OPMS, people involved can always see the linkages between the various dimensions of the OPMS:

A: THINGS TO DO

HINDER

HELP ACCOMPLISH

B: BARRIERS

HELP OVERCOME

C: STRENGTHS

more linkages

Activities

HINDER

HELP ACCOMPLISH

B: Barriers/Weaknesses

HELPOVERCOME

Strengths required

…more linkages…

Opportunities

HELP AVAIL

slide81

MISSION

HELP ACCOMPLISH

Opportunities

HELP AVAIL

Activities

HINDER

HELP ACCOMPLISH

B: Barriers/Weaknesses

HELPOVERCOME

Strengths required

these models can become as detailed as required right down to the level of

These models can become as detailed as required, right down to the level of…

WHICH BARRIER hinders WHICH ACTIVITY?

WHICH STRENGTH is required to overcome WHICHBARRIER?

All this and more becomes clear as the OPMS is developed!

slide83

Linkages between ‘BARRIERS’ & ‘THINGS TO DO’

Thebarrier marked in the FR HINDERS / PREVENTSaccomplishment of the objectivemarkedin the ISM (and all objectives above it)!

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide85

MISSION

HELP ACCOMPLISH

Opportunities

HELP AVAIL

Activities

HINDER

HELP ACCOMPLISH

B: Barriers/Weaknesses

HELPOVERCOME

Strengths required

slide86

All needed ‘subsystems’ for the Mission will develop most effectively indeed as the people involved in the Mission understand clearly how various elements in the‘Fundamental Dimensions’ impact on the THINGS TO DO to accomplish the Mission

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

planning system
Planning System
  • Defines how the individual/ organisation plans
  • Who is responsible for planning?
  • Interaction of ‘Planning’ with other Dimensions and Departments
  • Budget

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information systems
Information Systems
  • Mission: “To ensure that the right information reaches the right person, at the right time, in the right format”
  • Defining the Information Systems group, what it does - and how
  • Interactions of ‘InfoSystems’ with other Dimensions and Departments
  • Budget

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

other sub systems as appropriate
Other sub-Systems as appropriate:
  • Production System
  • Monitoring & Evaluation System
  • Finance and Finance Control System
  • Problem Solving and Learning Systems
  • Etc - whatever be the systems required - the people involved should create them: the OPMS enables creation of such required sub-systems.

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

monitoring evaluation system
Monitoring & Evaluation System:

For each important element or group of elements in the Action Plan:

  • Who’s responsible?
  • When should it be started/completed?
  • How Much ? - Budget for this item - relationship with total budget for Mission
  • Etc - as required

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problem solving system learning system
Problem Solving System & Learning System
  • Both above Systems are built into the very process of the OPMS
  • We provide a series of models showing just what is meant by problem-solving and learning in the system environment
  • Users are encouraged to add special features of their specific Problem-Solving and Learning Systems

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slide93

Effective Learning

Effective Problem Solving

Represents ”contributes to"

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learning problem solving
Learning & Problem Solving
  • What do you want ‘learning’ to be in the organisation/ for yourself?
  • Who learns? When? How? Detailed definition/specification of ‘Learning Systems’ for the organisation/ for the individual.
  • What do you want ‘problem solving’ to be?
  • Who problem solves? When? How? Definition/specification of problem solving in the organisation/by the individual

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.

slide95

Mission: “To recruit and retain talent”

A complete, ‘general system’

GSC - OPMS - IIT Pres.