Safety & Health Management System Training Lesson 3 – Worksite Analysis
Safety Health Management System (SHMS) Webinar Series In this series of webinars developed under the Susan Harwood Grant, you will learn: • Lesson 1 - OSHA and the Importance of Having a Safety Health Management System (SHMS) • Lesson 2 – Management Commitment & Leadership • Lesson 3 – Worksite Analysis • Lesson 4 – Hazard Prevention & Control • Lesson 5 – Safety & Health Training
Lesson 3 Contents • Objectives • Accident Investigation • Self-Inspection • Comprehensive Survey • Legal Requirements • Job Hazard Analysis
Objectives • Learn the four methods of worksite analysis: • Accident/ Investigation System • Routine self-inspections • Comprehensive Surveys • Job Hazard Analysis, or Other Pre-Use Analysis • Learn how to effectively conduct each method within your organization.
Accident Investigation • Accident is defined as an unplanned event that results in personal injury or property damage. • Accident is an indication of a deficiency in the SHMS.
Accident Investigation • Incident • An unplanned event that does not result in personal injury but may result in property damage or is worthy of recording. • Near-Miss • An event that does not result in an injury or damage. It is important to record and investigate near-misses to identify weaknesses in the SHMS that could possibly lead to an injury or damage.
Accident Investigation • The primary goals of an accident investigation are: • To identify the root cause of the accident or incident • To prevent the accident or incident from occurring again. • Accident investigations and reports help identify these deficiencies. • Must be conducted and written according to your organization's established documented procedures.
Accident Investigation • The investigation process is "fact-finding" not "fault-finding". Not to place blame. • When interviewing witnesses, ask open-ended questions, listen carefully and be courteous. • For more guidance on accident investigation, visit the OSHA website – Accident Investigation.
Accident Investigation • Accident history records • Another way to discover potential workplace hazards. • Helps you identify past trends. • To establish focused interventions that will prevent similar accidents from re-occurring. • Also known as loss reports/runs.
Accident Investigation • Elements of an accident investigation. • A documented procedure is in place when an employee reports an accident, incident or near miss. • Procedures include instructions for medical treatment of employees for all shifts. • Employees are trained to report accidents immediately to their immediate supervisor. • The investigation process may include a team of employees to ensure that the root cause of the accident or incident is identified.
Accident Investigation Exercise 1 • Identify Cause of CHC Accident • Jim South, the Sales Manager at CHC, was in his office when he received a phone call from Mark Rebell. Mark reported that his hand had been injured and that he needed medical attention. He told Jim that he had been walking onto a job site while calling a client on his cell phone. He failed to notice a pile of debris stored near the sidewalk and accidentally tripped on a broken piece of pallet. He put his hands out to stop his fall and his right hand landed on a corner of the broken pallet, slicing a deep cut into his hand. He wanted to know what he should do next.
Accident Investigation Exercise 1 Answers • Question 1 • Answer: • Jim South should immediately arrange proper medical care for Mark. While the injury is not life-threatening, it should be evaluated to determine if sutures are needed. • Question 2 • Answer: • Absolutely. This injury may very likely require sutures, which would make it be recordable on the OSHA Form 300 (discussed on next page). In addition, the root cause of the accident should be identified so that future, similar accidents can be prevented.
Accident Investigation Exercise 1 Answers • Question 3 • Answer: • Root causes of the accident were: (1) inappropriate storage of debris near sidewalk used by employees to access the job site (poor housekeeping) and (2) distraction of employee as he dialed his cell phone. • Preventive measures include (1) an action plan for communicating the importance of contractor housekeeping at all job sites, (2) routine inspection of all job sites for improper storage of debris and (3) prohibition against use of cell phones on job sites unless employees are in a safe place.
Self Inspection • Reviewing injury and accident data is important, but visually inspecting your facility is the only way to know for sure if hazardous conditions are: • Present • To determine if they are adequately being controlled. • Self-inspections should be conducted on a regular basis because conditions can change.
Self Inspection • Self-inspections promote employee participation by getting many employees involved. • Those who conduct self-inspections can include, but are not limited to: • Top management, members of safety committees, departmental employees and safety and health staff. • Rotating the employees who participate on the inspection team allows more employees to become involved with the SHMS.
Self Inspection – What are you looking for? Keep areas for potential hazards in mind when inspecting the following: • Housekeeping • Cleanliness of work area; leakage or spillage; and cleaning methods • Building Conditions • Exit lights functional; exits, stairs, and aisles free of obstruction
Self Inspection • Electricity • Electrical circuits labeled and unused openings closed. • Machinery • Effective guarding of point of operation; and Lockout/tag out • Chemicals • Proper storage and labeling; and protective equipment available and used properly.
Self Inspection • Fire Protection • Fire extinguishers free of obstruction; fire alarms and sprinklers functional; and evacuations routes posted. • Material Handling • Forklifts, cranes, and hoists properly inspected and operated. • Personal Protective Equipment • PPE is available and maintained properly; and proper use of PPE.
Self Inspection • Personnel • Proper use of equipment; and safe work practices. • Examples of Self-Inspection Checklists • OSHA Checklist • OSHA Handbook for small businesses - Provides a good overview of self-inspection techniques. (See p. 24 for Checklist.) • General Safety Audit Checklist (Word Format)
Self Inspection - Assignment Below are ideas to consider when conducting your self-inspection: • Train your employees on how to identify hazards prior to starting the self-inspection. • Develop and utilize helpful checklists so that you don't forget anything when you're conducting the walk-through. Add extra blank spaces so that you can fill in items that are not yet included on the checklist. Later, you can modify your checklist to accommodate your particular workplace. • Wear necessary PPE that may be defined by your organization. The safety inspection team should not be violating safety policies! • Have necessary tools such as a tape measure, camera or electrical measuring devices to perform quick measurements of the workplace conditions. • Don't forget to communicate and distribute the results of the completed self-inspection to appropriate departments. • Similarly, don't forget to assign responsibilities and due dates for completing corrective actions.
Comprehensive Survey • A comprehensive survey: thorough investigation of the specific hazards in work environment. • Investigates possible harmful conditions, conducts scientific measurements to determine potential personnel exposure, and helps to identify legal requirements where necessary. • Different from a self-inspection in that it systematically identifies and documents common hazards common to your work environment
Comprehensive Survey Comparison of Results: Comprehensive Survey vs. Self-Inspection
Comprehensive Survey • A comprehensive survey should be performed by professionals trained in occupational safety and health, industrial hygiene, ergonomics, or other specific areas. • Your workers' compensation insurance carrier, private safety consultants, or even your local OSHA consultation office may be able to serve as resources.
Legal Requirements • Purpose of your comprehensive survey is to identify and understand the legal requirements with which you must comply
Legal Requirements • According to the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act: • employers are subject to the General Duty Clause at Section 5(a)(1), • Employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.
Legal Requirements • States are allowed to develop their own OSH plans but they must establish standards that are at least as stringent as those of federal OSHA. • To determine if your state has its own plan with which you must comply, see State Occupational Safety and Health Plans (OSHA website).
Legal Requirements • Legal requirements are grouped into these categories: • Industrial Hygiene • Workplace Conditions • Emergency Planning • We will indicate whether or not the standards associated with the hazards in each category require a written program or training.
Legal Requirements • Keep in mind that this section is not exhaustive—many hazards are not covered. What follows are the most commonly found hazards in general industry.
Legal Requirements • Industrial Hygiene – Chemical Hazards • Do your employees handle chemicals or dusty materials in your workplace? • If so, it is your responsibility to provide information on these hazards and to determine if your employees' exposure exceeds permissible levels.
Legal Requirements • Industrial Hygiene – Other Hazards • Are your employees exposed to loud noise, repetitive motions or bloodborne pathogens? If so, it is your responsibility to provide information on these hazards and to determine if the exposure to your employees exceeds acceptable levels
Legal Requirements • Bloodborne Pathogens (BBP) • Pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). • Other Potentially Infectious Materials (OPIM) • The following fluids: semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood, and all body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body fluids
Legal Requirements • Emergency Planning • OSHA requires you to develop written emergency plans and to train your employees appropriately in case of emergencies, such as fires, chemical spills, medical emergencies and weather events. • Exit Routes • Emergency Action • Fire Safety • Medical and First Aid
Legal Requirements • Required Written Programs and Plans • Following your comprehensive survey, you may be subject to developing and implementing some written programs. • A written program documents how your company will comply with the legal requirement, and OSHA will request to see them if your facility is inspected.
Legal Requirements • OSHA has templates for some written plans and programs that you may customize for your specific worksite (check your state too). • The following list of plans and programs are often implemented by small businesses (not an exhaustive list).
Legal Requirements • Bloodborne Pathogen (BBP) Exposure Control Plan • Chemical Hygiene Plan • Confined Space Entry • Emergency Action Plan • Hazard Communication Program • Lockout/Tagout - Mechanical and/or Electrical • PPE Hazard Assessments • Respiratory Protection Program
Legal Requirements • The following plans are not required to be written but are certainly recommended: • Forklift Safety • Hearing Conservation • Hot Work Permit (required for Process Safety Management) • Templates: http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/compliance_assistance/sampleprograms.html
Job Hazard Analysis • Job Hazard Analysis (or JHA) is a valuable technique, utilized in companies of all sizes, to routinely examine and analyze safety and health hazards associated with individual jobs or processes. • Note: Some companies use the terms "Job Safety Analysis" and "JSA" instead of "Job Hazard Analysis".
Job Hazard Analysis • JHA can be used to identify, analyze and record: • the steps involved in performing a specific job. • the existing or potential safety and health hazards associated with each step. • the recommended action(s) / procedure(s) that will eliminate or reduce these hazards and the risk of a workplace injury or illness.
Job Hazard Analysis • JHA is useful for jobs that have high injury and illness rates. • Jobs with the potential to cause severe or disabling injuries. • Jobs that are new to your operation, or complex jobs that require written instructions.
Job Hazard Analysis • Tip: How to start a JHA • Select the job to be analyzed. • Define the specific steps or tasks to do the job. • Define the hazards associated with each task. • Make recommendations to minimize or eliminate the hazard. • When conducting a JHA, involve employees whose jobs or tasks are being analyzed.