Invasive Species What are they? Why are they important? What can we do about them? Use mouse button to go to the next slide
What is an Invasive Species? Invasive Species • An "invasive species" is defined as a species that is • non–native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration • and • 2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.
Which Invasive Species Affect Us? Invasive Species • We encounter invasive species every day, and most are benign or beneficial. • Invasive species affecting us in Arkansas include plants and animals. • Some examples of common invasive species include:
Examples of insects Invasive Species Red Imported Fire Ant USDA APHIS PPQ Archives, USDA APHIS, www.forestryimages.org Asian Tiger mosquito Susan Ellis, www.forestryimages.org
Invasive Species nutria starling Lee Karney, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, www.forestryimages.org www.scsc.k12.ar.us zebra mussel U.S. Geological Survey Archives, U.S. Geological Survey, www.forestryimages.org
Examples of plants Invasive Species kudzu James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus) David J. Moorhead, The University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org
Examples of microbes Invasive Species West Nile Virus, 2005 As an example of spread of invasive species, consider that West Nile Virus spread across the US in only a few years after appearing first in 1999.
There are approximately 4,000 exotic plant species and 2,300 non-native animal species in the US.A few cause problems: just 79 species caused $97 billion in direct economic losses in the US during 1906-1991.Source: America’s Least Wanted, The Nature Conservancy 1996. Invasive Species
Invasive species can cause ecological damage by Invasive Species • Altering ecosystem physical or chemical properties • Depleting native wildlife by preying on them or by niche competition • Setting off cascading biological changes in the systems they invade
Chestnut blight Some invasive species can cause huge ecological and economic impacts. American Chestnut – lost to an invasive species, chestnut blight Historic range of American chestnut
Examples of established invasive species in forests: insects and diseases Invasive Species Chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease, gypsy moth, balsam wooly adelgid, hemlock wooly adelgid, pecan weevil, . . .
Examples of established invasive species in forests: plants Invasive Species Kudzu, Japanese honeysuckle, princesstree, privets, Tree–of–Heaven, mimosa, Chinaberry, English ivy, Nepalese browntop, bamboos, giant reed, lespedezas, non–native wisterias, ...
Examples of threatening invasive species in forests: Invasive Species • Insects • Diseases • Plants
Asian Longhorned Beetle Invasive Species Donald Duerr, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org Thomas B. Denholm, New Jersey Department of Agriculture, www.forestryimages.org
ALB risk map Invasive Species
Gypsy Moth Invasive Species USDA APHIS PPQ Archives, USDA APHIS PPQ, www.forestryimages.org Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Archives, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, www.forestryimages.org
Gypsy Moth Invasive Species Gypsy Moth damage Mark Robinson, forestryimages.org
Emerald Ash Borer Invasive Species David Cappaert, , www.forestryimages.org Andrew J. Storer, MI Tech. University James W. Smith, USDA APHIS PPQ, www.forestryimages.org
European Wood Wasp Invasive Species William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, www.forestryimages.org Stanislaw Kinelski, , www.forestryimages.org
Pine Shoot Beetle Invasive Species orth Central Research Station Forestry Science Laboratory
Formosan Termite Invasive Species Gerald J. Lenhard, , www.forestryimages.org
Kudzu Invasive Species David J. Moorhead, The University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org
Kudzu infestation John D. Byrd, Mississippi State University, www.forestryimages.org
Kudzu infestation Kudzu infestation Kerry Britton, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org
Chinese Wisteria Invasive Species James R. Allison, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, www.forestryimages.org Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, www.forestryimages.org
Cogongrass Invasive Species Wilson Faircloth, USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.forestryimages.org G. Keith Douce, The University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org showing off-center mid-vein
Cogongrass rhizomes Cogongrass rhizomes Craig Ramsey, USDA APHIS PPQ, www.forestryimages.org
Cogongrass infestation Cogongrass infestation Wilson Faircloth, USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.forestryimages.org Note the distinctive circular infestations in the planted stand. Craig Ramsey, USDA APHIS PPQ, www.forestryimages.org
Chinese Tallow (popcorn tree) Invasive Species James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, www.forestryimages.org
AR Champion Chinese Tallow: Located in Des Arc, has diameter 10.7 inches, height 39 feet and crown spread 32 feet. University of Arkansas Extension Service
Callery Pear Invasive Species Chuck Bargeron, The University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org Dan Tenaglia, www.missouriplants.com, www.forestryimages.org
Callery pear blooming Britt Slattery, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, www.forestryimages.org
Chinese Privet / European Privet Invasive Species Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, www.forestryimages.org James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org
Privet infestation James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org
Tropical Soda Apple Invasive Species Charles T. Bryson, USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.forestryimages.org J. Jeffrey Mullahey, University of Florida, www.forestryimages.org J. Jeffrey Mullahey, University of Florida, www.forestryimages.org
Tropical Soda Apple Invasive Species James Rollins, , www.forestryimages.org
The Dirty Dozen Invasive Species Zebra Mussel Purple Loosestrife Flathead Catfish Tamarisk Rosy Wolfsnail Leafy Spurge Green Crab Hydrilla Balsam Wooly Adelgid Miconia Chinese Tallow Brown Tree Snake Source: America’s Least Wanted, The Nature Conservancy 1996.
The Dirty Dozenin Arkansas Invasive Species Zebra Mussel Purple Loosestrife Flathead Catfish Tamarisk Rosy Wolfsnail Leafy Spurge Green Crab Hydrilla Balsam Wooly Adelgid Miconia Chinese Tallow Brown Tree Snake Yellow: found in Arkansas; Blue: in adjacent states. Source: America’s Least Wanted, The Nature Conservancy 1996.
Action: national and state Invasive Species National Invasive Species Council USDA: APHIS USFS NRCS Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds National Park Service US Fish & Wildlife Service The Nature Conservancy Exotic Plant Pest Councils State forestry agencies Regional Tropical Soda Apple Task Force AR State Plant Board
Action: us Invasive Species • Awareness: what are the most threatening pests? • Identification: be able to identify invasive species • Control: know where to get information on control • Education: teach others • Individual actions / behaviors: especially, don’t help invasive species spread!
Resources: Invasive Species Books, Field Guides, and other materials: "Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests“ Websites: www.invasivespecies.gov www.invasive.org tncweeds.ucdavis.edu