„But the cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) has a far wider range.: it now occurs in these latitudes on both sides of the Cordillera across the continent. I saw it in unfrequented spots in Chile, Entre Rios, and Banda oriental. In the latter country alone, very many (probably several hundred) square miles are covered with one mass of these prickly plants, and are impenetrable by man or beast. Over the undulating plains, where these great beds occur, nothing else can live. Before their introduction, however, I apprehend the surface supported as in other parts a rank herbage. I doubt whether any case is on record of an invasion of so grand scale of one plant over the aborigines”
Charles Darwin 1839: Voyage of the Beagle.
Colorado Potato beetle
First introduced to Europe in 1877
First record in Poland 1960
First introduced into North America in 1868
Has about 650 different host plants
During outbreaks causes major damages in softwood forests
The Asian species was first reported from Houston texas in 1985
Now established in Brazil, Europe, and New Zealand
Vectors of yellow and dengue fever, as well as encephalitis
Changing cimate will promote the spread towards northern countries
First occurrence in mainland France in 2006. Now recorded from Belgium, Italy, France, Balkan region. First deadly infection of Chikungunya feaver in Italy 2007.
Introduced into the great Est African lakes during the 1950s and 1960s to improve fishering.
Caused dramatic changes in faunal and floral composition
Caused algal blooms and eutrophication
Caused the extinction of more than 200 native fish species (2/3 of all species)
Introduced into China from South America in the 1930s as an ornamental plant, to provide liestock food and to control air pollution
Caused reduction of lake areas and let to the extinction of about 30 fish species
Reduced lake areas caused climate changes and changes in water cycling
The flatworm was introduced via ship ballast water (first records 1979)
In the vistula lagoon it has become the dominant species constituting up to 97% of the total biomass of the bottom- living macrofauna
In the USA unsuccessfully used as aphid predator in biological control programs since 1916.
Sudden spread in USA since 1980.
Major impact on natural communities of aphid predators due to its high reproduction rate.
First observations of the Asian Lady beetle 2001: Belgium
2002: Germany, Netherlands2004: UK, France
2007: Scandinavia, Poland
2009: Whole of Poland
First observed in the Netherlands (2007)
In 2008 massive invasion along the Rhine river up to Switzerland
Species are up to 18 cm in diameter.
They occur in large colonize of up to several hundred individuals.
They show colonial movements.
Data from McNeely J. A. (1999), Kobelt and Nentwig (2008), Caley et al. 2008, and Sukopp (1990)
25% of all Hawaiian species are alien
Changing land use
Changing of ecosystemfunctioning
Changing land management
Increasingopportunities for invaders
Marcel Rejmanek (1946-
DNA contents of 148 Californian angiosperms (from Knight et al. 2005)
„...florasgain by naturalization, proportionallywiththenumber of nativegenera and species, far moreinnewgenerathaninnewspecies”
Charles Darwin 1959: TheEvolution of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Theanalysis of plant speciesintroduced to California showsthatsignificantlymorespecies of Europeangenerawerenaturalizedthan of sharedgenera.
Fromintroduction to spreadingmight pass a long time.
Observed time lagsfromintyroduction to spradinginvarioustrees and shrubsinthearea of Berlin and Brandenburg (Kowarik 1995)
Invasive species: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasive_species
Invasive species database: http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/
A different opinion: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/09/science/09inva.html