Canada in the Post-War World Canada’s contributions to the UN
Peacekeeping • Canada’s peacekeeping role has evolved over the 50 years of their involvement. • We support and participate in peace operations led by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European Union (EU) and the African Union (AU). • 'Peace operations' is a simple label for a huge range of connected military, diplomatic and humanitarian tasks, such as: • reforming justice and security systems, • disarming and demobilizing troops, • reintegrating them into peaceful pursuits, • supporting humanitarian assistance.
Tens of thousands of Canadians have served in more than 40 separate peacekeeping missions. • More than 100 Canadians have died in peacekeeping operations and hundreds more have been wounded. • Canada has always been a strong supporter of the United Nations (UN) and of peacekeeping, and has participated in almost every mission since its inception. • As of early 2006, women constituted approximately 1% of military personnel and 4% of police personnel in UN peacekeeping; 30% of international civilian staff and 28% of nationally recruited civilian staff are women.
As of June30th, 2006, there are more than 90,000 personnel serving on 18 UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) on four continents in ten time zones. • 64,200 of those currently serving are troops and military observers • 7,500 are police personnel. • 5,250 international civilian personnel, • more than 11,300 are local civilian staff • 1,720 UN Volunteers
Korean Conflict • Officially termed a police action by the Americans, the Korean Conflict was a battle between communist North, and democratic South. • War broke out in the 1950s when North Korea attempted to invade South Korea. • It is called Canada's "Forgotten War." • Over 500 Canadians died in the United Nations' struggle to repel the communist forces that invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950. • It took the Canadian government 40 years to recognize the efforts of the 27,000 Canadians. • http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/korean_war/topics/112/
Suez Crisis • The Suez Canal links the Mediterranean and Red seas. • Originally privately owned by British and French investors. • In 1956 the Egyptian president took over the canal. • This frightened neighboring Israel, as Egypt threatened to bar ships to and from Israel. • Britain and France supported Israel. • The UN Security Council had called a halt to hostilities, but Britain and France didn’t listen and sent in troops.
The Soviet Union supported Egypt and immediately gave them financial aid and missiles. • The US was mad at Britain and France for not asking permission to attack Egypt, but supported all efforts against the Soviet Union. • Canada’s Lester B. Pearson when to the UN and proposed that the UN Emergency Force be sent to the Suez Canal to separate and mediate the conversations between the rival armies. • With the arrival of the UNEF, the fighting between the combatants halted and a ceasefire was achieved. • For his part in resolving the Suez Crisis, Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Canadian Peacekeeping Missions • 1940-present ~ Arab-Israeli and India-Pakistan conflicts. • 1950 to 1953 ~ the Korean War • 1956 ~ Suez Crisis (Egypt) • 1958 ~Lebanon • 1960-64 ~ Congo • 1964-Present ~Cyprus • 1973-79 ~ Egypt (Israeli vs Egypt tension) • 1974-present ~ Syria: • More than 12,000 Canadians have served there • 1978 – present ~ Lebanon • 1988-90 ~ Afghanistan
1988-91 ~ Persian Gulf (The Gulf War) • More than 4,000 Canadian Forces personnel served in the tense Persian Gulf region as part of the international coalition of countries • 1990-91 ~ Haiti • 1991-95 ~ El Salvador • Canada sends contingent to observer mission to monitor ceasefire following El Salvador’s 12 year civil war. • 1992-95 ~ Somalia • The mission gains attention and becomes a national scandal referred to as “the Somalia Affair” after Canadian soldiers are convicted of torture, assault and murder of Somali civilians. • 1993-94 ~ Rwanda • This mission met significant hurdles as UN troops witnessed the slaughter of nearly 800,000 Rwandans
Security Council • The Security Council is the main organ responsible for maintaining global peace and security. • It has 5 permanent members: • China, • France, • Russia (which assumed the Soviet Union's seat), • United Kingdom • United States • 10 members elected by the General Assembly. • Canada served a two-year term from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2000 as a non-permanent member; this was the sixth time since 1948 that Canada has sat on the Security Council. http://video.tvguide.com/World/No+UN+seat+for+Canada/6541064
UN Agencies • Canada is among the top ten donors, providing over US$600 million dollars a year in core and program funding to the UN System of funds, programs and agencies, such as: • UN Development Program, • UNICEF • World Health Organization,