Chapter 15 Leadership
Introduction Research focuses on 2 Key Leadership Issues: • Why some organizational members Become Leaders while others do not • Why some leaders are Effective, while others are not
What is Leadership? A person may be a Leader without being a Manager, or a Manager without being a Leader.
What is Leadership? Leadership – the process of Directing and Influencing the work-related activities of other Group Members toward achievement of Organizational Goals.
What is Leadership? Leadership involves: 1. Other People (Followers/Subordinates) 2. Unequal Distribution of Power 3. Influence (exerted on Followers)
McGregor: Attitudes of Leaders Leaders may hold either “Theory X” or “Theory Y” assumptions about subordinates.
McGregor: Attitudes of Leaders Theory X Assumptions: Employees do not like to work, do not want responsibility, and are basically lazy. Subordinates prefer to be closely supervised, told exactly what to do, and only want job security from their employment.
McGregor: Attitudes of Leaders Theory Y Assumptions: Employees like to work, seek responsibility, and can be self-directed. Employees want to be creative problem-solvers.
McGregor: Attitudes of Leaders Leader Attitude determines Leadership Style: Theory X Leaders are Authoritarian or directive leaders. Theory Y leaders are Sensitive to people and tend to allow more Participation.
Leader’s Power Sources Reward Power Coercive Power Legitimate Power Referent Power Expert Power
Organizational Encounter (p. 442) Leadership Has No Age Limits ● Who is Michael Sessions? ● What characteristics made him a Leader?
Organizational Encounter (p. 443) Growing Leaders Does “Growing you own” leadership talent have real benefits? Explain.
Leadership Theories 3 Main Categories: Trait Theories Behavioral Theories Situational (Contingency) Theories
Trait Approaches to Leadership • Assumes a set of individual traits are associated with effective leadership. • Intelligence • Personality • Physical Characteristics • Based on research that relates various traits to success criteria. • Research findings are inconclusive.
Traits Associated With Leadership Effectiveness: • Research studies find various traits associated with effective leadership. • Commonly identified traits include: • Self-Confidence • Emotional Maturity/Intelligence • Cooperativeness • Integrity • Job-Relevant Knowledge
Trait Theory Shortcomings • List of potentially important traits is endless. • Trait test scores are not consistently predictive of leader effectiveness. • Effective leader behavior depends largely on the situation. • The trait approach fails to provide insight into what an effective leader does on the job.
Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Theories contrast 2 “Styles” of Leadership Behavior: 1. Task-Oriented: Getting the Job Done! 2. Employee-Oriented: Tries to Motivate rather than control.
Behavioral Approaches to Leadership:Ohio State Studies Initiating Structure • “Task Orientation” • Defines and Organizes the roles of group members for goal attainment. Consideration • “Employee Orientation” • Creating mutual Trust and Respect with subordinates.
Behavioral Approaches to Leadership:University of Michigan Studies Production-Centered Leader • Focuses on completing the task. • Uses close supervision and prescribed work methods. • Relies on coercion, reward, and legitimate power to influence behavior and performance of subordinates.
Behavioral Approaches to Leadership:University of Michigan Studies Employee-Centered Leader • Focuses on the people doing the work. • Encourages subordinate participation in goal-setting and work-related decisions. • Concerned with subordinates’ personal advancement, growth, and achievement.
Blake & Mouton’s Leadership Grid Identifies 5 Distinctive Leadership Styles, depending on the leader’s level of “Concern for People” (Employee Orientation) and “Concern for Production” (Task Orientation).
Blake & Mouton’s Leadership Grid 1.Impoverished (“Laissez-Faire”) Leadership: Low concern for both People and Production. Leader abdicates leadership role. 2.Country Club Leadership: High concern for People, but Low concern for Production. 3.Authoritarian-Compliance Leadership: High concern for Production, but Low concern for People.
Blake & Mouton’s Leadership Grid 4.Middle-of-the-RoadLeadership:Intermediatelevel of concern for bothProduction and Employeesatisfaction. 5.Team (Democratic) Leadership:Highconcern forboth Production and Employeemorale and satisfaction.
Behavioral Theories in Perspective • Emphasizing Behaviors which can be learned, Behavioral theories contend that Leaders are Made, not born, to play the leadership role.
Behavioral Theories in Perspective • Behavioral theories have moderate success in consistently identifying a relationship between leader behaviors and group performance. • However, research results emphasize that effectiveness of leadership behavior depends on the situation.
Situational (or Contingency) Theories of Leadership • Propose that Effective Leadership depends on the Interaction between the Situation and the leader’s Behavior. • The “contingency” concept of leadership can be summarized as: “It all depends…”
Key Situational Leadership Theories • Fiedler’s Contingency Leadership Model • Vroom-Jago Leadership Model • House’s Path-Goal Model • Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)
Fiedler’s Contingency Leadership Model The Performance of groups is dependant on the Interaction between Leadership Style and Situational Favorableness.
Fiedler’s Contingency Leadership Model Leadership Style • Task-Oriented leadership • Relationship-Oriented leadership Situational Factors • Leader-Member Relations • Task Structure • Position Power
Fiedler’s Contingency Leadership Model To Achieve Effective Group Performance: 1.Matchthe Leaderwith the Situation. OR 2.ChangetheSituationto fit the Leader’s Style.
Fiedler’s Contingency Leadership Model First Step: Determine the manager’s Leadership Style with the “Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale” • High LPC Leader = Relationship-Oriented • Low LPC Leader = Task-Oriented
Summary of Fiedler’s Situational Variables and Their Preferred Leadership Styles Situational Characteristics Situation Leader-Member Relations (Trust) Task Structure Position Power I II III IV V VI VII VIII Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor High High Low Low High High Low Low Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Preferred Leadership Styles Task-Oriented Relationship-Oriented Task-Oriented Very Favorable Situation Very Unfavorable situation
Leadership Actions to Change Situations Changing Leader-Member Relations: • Request particular people for work group • Transfer particular subordinates out of the work group • Volunteer to direct difficult or troublesome subordinates
Leadership Actions to Change Situations Changing Task Structure: • Bring new or unusual tasks or problems to the group. • Break jobs down into smaller sub-tasks that can be more highly structured.
Leadership Actions to Change Situations Changing Position Power: • Show subordinates “who is boss” by fully exercising the authority you have. • Make sure that information to the group gets channeled through you. • Let subordinates participate in planning and decision making.
Fiedler’s Contingency Leadership Model What would Fiedler suggest about the usefulness of Leadership Training programs?
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model:Assumptions of the Model • The Model assists managers in determining which leadership styles they should use in various situations. • No single leadership style is applicable to all situations. • The main focus is the problem to be solved and the situation in which the problem occurs.
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model:Assumptions of the Model • The leadership style used in one situation should not constrain the styles used in other situations. • Situational Factors influence the optimum amount of participation by subordinates in problem solving.
Decision Effectiveness Decision Quality Subordinate Commitment Time considerations Decision Styles Autocratic (A) Consultative (C) Group (G) Delegated (D) Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Diagnostic Procedure: Key Questions • How important is the technical quality of the decision? • How important is subordinate commitment to the decision?
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Diagnostic Procedure: Key Questions • Do you have sufficient information to make a high-quality decision? • Is the problem well structured?
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Diagnostic Procedure: Key Questions • If you made the decision by yourself, is it reasonably certain that your subordinates would be committed to the decision? • Do subordinates sharethe organizational goals to be attained in solving this problem?
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Diagnostic Procedure: Key Questions • Is conflict among subordinates over preferred solutions likely? • Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high-quality decision?
Path-Goal Leadership Model • Path-Goal Leadership Model is based on the Expectancy Theory of Motivation. • Effective leaders strengthen the relationship between performance and outcomes, and improve the valence of outcomes. Also strengthen effort-to-performance expectancy by providing support and resources.
Path-Goal Leadership Model Leaders Influence/MotivateEmployees by: • Determining most valued Rewards • Making valued rewards Contingent on performance. • Clarifying the Path to high performance (and the desired rewards).
Styles of Leader Behavior Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-Oriented Situational Variables Personal characteristics of the subordinates Environmental pressures and demands Path-Goal Leadership Model
Framework of Revised Path-Goal Leadership Perspective Employee Characteristics Outcomes • Ability • Locus of control • Need for clarity • Need for achievement • Experience • Increase employee confidence to achieve • Clarify paths to desired rewards • Establish challenging goals • Utilize full range of talents of all group members • Increase need satisfaction • Improve work performance • Reduce uncertainties Categories of Leader Behaviors • Clarifying paths • Achievement oriented • Being supportive • Facilitating productive interaction • Group decision making • Networking • Projecting values Leader Effectiveness Environmental Dimensions • Task structure • Work group dynamics
Path-Goal Leadership Model Leader Effectiveness is measured by: 1. Employee Motivation 2. Employee Satisfaction 3. Leader Acceptance
Path-Goal Leadership Model In Contrast to Fiedler’s ideas, Path-Goal model contends that effective leaders select the most appropriate leadership style for a particular work situation.
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) • Emphasis is on followers and their level of maturity. • Leader must judge subordinates’ maturity levels and use a leadership stylethatfits that level.