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4 th International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, Pucon , Chile 4-8 th March 2013. Natural Host Range of Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae ) in Morocco: could it help predict host range in new areas?.

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slide1

4th International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, Pucon, Chile 4-8th March 2013

Natural Host Range of Microctonusaethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Morocco: could it help predict host range in new areas?

  • Barratt BIP1, Oberprieler RG2, Barton DM1,Mouna M3, Stevens M 4, Alonso-Zarazaga MA5, Vink CJ1,
  • Ferguson, CM1
  • 1AgReseArch NZ
  • 2CSIRO AUStralia
  • 3InstitutScientifique, rabat, Morocco
  • 4DPI, NSW, Australia
  • 5MuseoNacional de CienciasNaturales(CSIC),
  • Madrid, spain
slide2

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

  • Risk assessment for a biocontrol agent can be informed by knowledge of:
  • Natural host range (hosts in area of origin)
  • and
  • Novel host-range (hosts in a new receiving environment)
  • Regulators often request these data as part of RA
    • e.g. FAO ‘Code of Conduct’ (1996)
case study

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

Case study
  • Parasitoid:Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
  • Solitary, koinobiont endoparasitoid of
  • the adult stage of its host
  • 1977 Morocco to Australia
  • 1982 NZ from Australia to control SitonadiscoideusGyllenhal
  • Effective biocontrol agent esp. in NZ

Since release:

NZ - 19 non-target weevil species (14 native spp.)

AUS – 1 non-target native sp.

Barratt BIP et al. (2010) Biological Control 52: 245–254

objective

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

objective
  • Determine retrospectively:
  • would better knowledge of the natural host range of M. aethiopoides in Morocco
  • and
  • novel host-range in Australia
  • have helped predict host range in NZ?
known host range

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

Known host range
  • Loan (1975), Aeschlimann (1980)
  • Sitona8 spp.
  • Hypera 3 spp.
  • ….but is it actually wider than this?
morocco

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

morocco
  • Sampled monthly (Sep-May) in 3 lucerne-growing regions:
    • Rabat – 3 sites (coastal plains)
    • Marrakech – 3 sites (inland semi-arid)
    • Ar-Rachidia – 4 sites (arid oasis)

Blower-vac in lucerne and surrounding vegetation

Rabat

Ar-Rachidia

Marrakech

Morocco

morocco1

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

morocco
  • Weevils sent to NZ:
  • identified
  • dissected for parasitism
  • parasitoid larvae kept for
  • molecular ID
morocco2

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

morocco

Collected 3,642 weevils – 84% S. discoideus

46 species (4 families, 11 subfamilies, 23 tribes)

*Vink C.J. et al. (2012) BioControl57: 751-758

known host range1

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

Known host range
  • Added another two host species in genus Charagmus, (C. gressorius and C. griseus)
  • Charagmus formerlya subgenus of Sitona*
  • *Velazquez de Castro et al. (2007)
known host range2

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

Known host range
  • Charagmus griseus Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Charagmus gressorius Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona discoideus Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona hispidulus Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona lepidus Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona lineatus Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona macularius Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona puncticollis Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona sulcifrons Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Sitona tenuis Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Hypera meles Hyperinae: Hyperini
  • Hypera nigrirostris Hyperinae: Hyperini
  • Hypera postica Hyperinae: Hyperini
slide13

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

australia

australia

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

australia
  • 2001 – survey of NT parasitism by M. aethiopoides
  • 25 sites in SE Australia
  • Single incidence of NT parasitism at

Yanco Agric. Inst. NSW

    • Prosayleus sp. 2

(Entiminae: Leptopiini)

  • Barratt et al. 2005. Australian
  • Journal of Entomology 44: 192-200

NSW

SA

Yanco

‘Prosayleus’ sp. 2

(Entiminae: Leptopiini)

VIC

australia1

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

australia
  • Sampled at Yanco in dryland and irrigated lucerne
  • 3,338 weevils collected, 90% S. discoideus
  • 13 other weevil spp. (3 families; 7 sub-families; 11 tribes)
  • Parasitism found only in S. discoideus
slide16

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

New Zealand

new zealand

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

New Zealand
  • Eugnomussp.1 Curculioninae: Eugnomini
  • Listroderesdelaiguei * Cyclominae: Listroderini
  • Listronotusbonariensis * Cyclominae: Listroderini
  • Steriphusvariabilis Cyclominae: Listroderini
  • Irenimus aemulator Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus aequalis Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus albosparsus Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus duplex Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus egens Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus similis Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Irenimus stolidus Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Nicaeana cervina Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Nicaeana cinerea Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Nicaeana fraudator Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Nicaeana sp. 1 Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Nonnotusalbicans Entiminae: Leptopiini
  • Sitonalepidus* Entiminae: Sitonini
  • Rhinocyllusconicus* Lixinae: Cleonini
  • Atrichonotustaeniatulus* Entiminae: Naupactini
  • *exotic species

Barratt BIP et al. (2010) Biological Control 52: 245–254.

what we thought

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

What we thought
  • Only known hosts of M. aethiopoides in genera Sitona and Hypera
  • Neither genus (or their tribes) occur naturally in NZ
  • Considered to be in separate sub-families
  • Entiminae and Hyperinae
  • Minimal requirement for quarantine testing in NZ in 1980s; no NT attack detected; no risk predicted
what we know now

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

What we know now
  • Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have suggested that ‘Hyperinae’ and ‘Entiminae’ are more closely related than previously thought:

Hundsdörfer, A.K., Rheinheimer, J. and Wink, M., 2009. ZoologischerAnzeiger248: 9–31

      • 16S - sister-group relationship between Hyperinae and Sitonini

McKenna DM, Sequeira AS, Marvaldi AE, Farrell BD 2009. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106: 7083–7088.

      • 4 nuclear and 2 mitochondrial genes - found Hypera nested within Entiminae

Haran J, Timmermans MJTN, Vogler AP 2013. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.12.022

        • mitochondrial genome – recovered Hypera as the sister-group of Entiminae

Gunter, Oberprieler et al. (submitted)

        • comprehensive molecular analysis of Australian weevils - Hyperinaeclustering as the sister-group of Entiminae
would it have helped

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

Would it have helped?
  • The combination of evidence that:
    • The natural host range is quite close phylogenetically
    • In Australia a species of Prosayleus (Entiminae: Leptopiini) was found to be a host
    • In NZ Leptopiini are well represented
    • In Morocco, Entiminae are well represented but NOT Leptopiini - scarcely (if at all) represented
  • Probably sufficient to suggest that native NZ Leptopiini should have been tested
  • NT parasitism would have been detected
slide21

Natural range

summary

novel range

Risk to NZ?

Background

  • Does knowledge of natural host range help predict host range in new areas of introduction?
  • It can provide a valuable contribution to RA provided:
  • Phylogenetic relationships are well understood
  • The fauna of the natural and receiving range is well known
  • Can be assisted by knowledge of host range in other new areas of introduction
acknowledgements
acknowledgements
  • Colleagues in AgResearch and the Research Collaboration ‘Better Border Biosecurity’
  • Funding:
  • Foundation for Research, Science and Technology
  • Department of Conservation