APA In-text Citations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. APA In-text Citations An Overview

  2. Quotation with and withoutSignal Phrase Schmidt (2010) noted that despite growing numbers of geese on the playfields, many students still “prefer to play soccer outdoors rather than indoors” (p. 5). Despite growing numbers of geese on the playfields, many students still “prefer to play soccer outdoors rather than indoors” (Schmidt, 2010, p. 5).

  3. Paraphrase Duncan and Ashkinos (2011) explained that soups suppress appetite by filling the stomach with liquid (p. 341). Soups suppress appetite by filling the stomach with liquid (Duncan & Ashkinos, 2002, p. 341).

  4. Paraphrasing and Page Numbers “A page number is not required for a summary or a paraphrase, but include one if it would help readers find the passage in a long work” (Bedford – St. Martins, 2011, para. 3)

  5. Two Authors According to Duncan and Ashkinos (2011), “Environmental factors may contribute as much as 50% to the success of classroom learning experiences” (p. 50). Environmental factors contribute to learning in the classroom (Duncan & Ashkinos, 2011, p. 50).

  6. Three or more Authors First time it appears in text: In 2009, Schmidt, Wandell, Pitney, and Duncan concluded, “Exercise . . . must be carefully monitored in people, to ensure healthy [blood pressure] and appetite” (p. 2). Second time it appears in text: As Schmidt et al. (2009) advised, “Exercise . . . must be carefully monitored in people, to ensure healthy [blood pressure] and appetite” (p. 2).

  7. Unknown Author Geese that are struggling with the pressures of migration encourages the consumption insects that live in watery meadows (“Nature Facts,” 2007).

  8. Organization is the Author First citation: Geese that travel more than 30 miles per day need to rest more frequently (National Geese Protection Society [NGPS] , 2009, para. 6). Later citations: Geese that travel more than 30 miles per day need to rest more frequently (NGPS , 2009, para. 6).

  9. Two Resources Agree Researchers agree that both Canadian Geese and egrets migrate in early October (Nature Facts, 2003; National Geographic, 2011).

  10. Interviews Many lunchtime soccer players have a great respect for migrating waterfowl (M. Hayroe, personal communication, October 4, 2011).

  11. Electronic Source with No Author The amount of rest needed by migrating egrets ranges from 3 to 10 hours (“Fun Facts,” 2001).

  12. Electronic Resource with No Date Trying to establish the relationship between rest and geese migration is like trying to nail Jello to a wall because when one goose lifts off, all the rest leave, too (Magnus, n.d.).

  13. Electronic Source with No Page Elmer and Fudd (2004) pointed out that several other geese species were frequenting marshes for “weeks at a time” (Migration section, para. 2).

  14. Source cited in a source Former hunter Bill Green described “a gaggle of geese facing a 500 mile flight as healthy if they were well rested” (as cited in Jackson, 2011, p. 2).

  15. Time –saving Tip Within a paragraph, when the name of the author is part of the text, you do not need to include the year in subsequent non-parenthetical references.

  16. Example In 2011, Green found more tired Canada Geese than egrets. His study confirmed the need for rest in all migrating waterfowl. While researching geese, Green also discovered that egrets need about 3 hours of rest for every hour of flight.

  17. Be sure to cite if new source is used Previous research indicates that individual geese who have more rest may fly farther. In 2011, Green found more tired Canada Geese than egrets. His study confirmed the need for rest in all migrating waterfowl. While researching geese, Green also discovered that egrets need about 3 hours of rest for every hour of flight. His findings were disputed by Fudd (2003) who discovered that egrets need about 2 hours of rest for every hour of flight (para. 4). Based on these findings, it appears that a relationship exists between rest and flight, but the exact ratio is unknown.