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In-text citations. In-text citations – used to put important ________ information in _______________________ after a paraphrase or quote NOTE: Should NOT have more than 1/3 of your paper cited . Why Use In-Text Citations? .

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in text citations
In-text citations
  • In-text citations – used to put

important ________ information in

_______________________ after a

paraphrase or quote

  • NOTE: Should NOT have more than 1/3 of your paper cited
why use in text citations
Why Use In-Text Citations?
  • Used within your research paper to refer readers to the source in the Works Cited
    • In case the reader wants to check it out!
  • Gives credit where credit is due
    • *No in-text citation = _______________________
in text citations use when
In-Text Citations: Use when…
  • ______________ an original idea from a source
  • ________________ that is NOT “common knowledge”
  • ________________ another person’s idea
    • For example, Literary criticism!
  • ________________
in text citations mla
In-Text Citations: MLA
  • For MLA style, in-text citations should include:
    • 1. ____________________ _____________ _____________
    • 2. ________________ ____________________
  • Citation comes BEFORE the closing punctuation mark.

Example, Quotation from GALE eBook: “He received honorary degrees from Harvard, Yale, and Oxford universities” (Benson 583).

Example, Paraphrase: Benjamin Franklin was educated at Harvard, Oxford, and Yale universities (Benson 583).

set up line
Set-Up Line
  • Set-up Line – a “signal phrase” that uses the

___________________ ___________ to “set up” the piece

of information

    • If you use a set-up line, you do NOT need to put the author’s name in parentheses.

Example, direct quotation: As Sonia Benson explains, “In 1787, Franklin attended the Constitutional Convention, during which members wrote the U.S. Constitution” (583).

Example, paraphrase: Sonia Benson tells us that Benjamin Franklin played a part in creating the U.S. Constitution in 1787 (583).

in text citations no page numbers
In-Text Citations: No Page Numbers
  • If you’re using an internet source that has no page

numbers, such as an article, then only

include the ____________________ ___________

_____________ in the citation.

Example from a New Yorker article found online: “Even within Apple, Jobs was known for taking credit for others’ ideas” (Gladwell).

in text citations author unknown
In-Text Citations: Author Unknown
  • When the author’s name is not given, the first thing

in parentheses should be the ______________

word in your entry for the source in your Works Cited


    • Usually the first word in the title
    • Not “the”
    • In quotes
author unknown example
Author Unknown: Example

Example of a Paraphrase from


"Barack Hussein Obama, Jr.." 2014. The Biography.comwebsite. May 01 2014.

Paraphrase: Barack was primarily raised by his mother because his father was studying in Massachusetts before his parents split apart (“Barack”).

activity worksheet
Activity: Worksheet
  • Complete the worksheet, “Practice with In-Text Citations,” by filling in the blanks with the required citation information. Follow the directions on the worksheet.
  • You may work with partners if you’d like, but I will collect a worksheet from every student.
for further information
For further information:

**Purdue Owl: MLA Formatting and Style Guide (edited 2014) (

hackerandbooks.comResearch and Documentation Online:5th edition

Bedford Writing Center:

Portland State University Writing Center