The Formation of a Bipolar World • The wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union deteriorated quickly after World War II. • Competition for control of Europe combined with earlier competing ideologies of communism and capitalism acted as catalysts to drive the two superpowers apart. • It split Europe into separate spheres, then became global with the Korean War.
The Formation of a Bipolar World • The Cold War in Europe • Eastern Europe • Forced to align themselves with the USSR following WWII • Became communist under the watchful eye of the Soviets • Western Europe • Capitalist and democratic • Aligned themselves with the United States • Berlin • Germany divided into East and West • West thrived while East struggled • Berlin divided as well… The Berlin Wall • NATO and The Warsaw Pact • NATO - Non Communist Western countries • The Warsaw Pact – Communist Eastern countries • Both built up huge stores of nuclear and conventional weapons.
The Formation of a Bipolar World • Confrontation in Korea • Following WWII, Korea was divided along the 38th Parallel. • North Korea - pro-Communist • South Korea - pro American • 1950 – North Korea invaded South Korea in an attempt to unite Korea under one Communist Regime.
The Formation of a Bipolar World • Confrontations in Korea and Cuba • U.S enter the war on the side of South Korea…. TRUMAN DOCTRINE… • Provided air, sea, and ground support
The Formation of Bipolar World • After initial success, Chinese communist forces halted the U.N. forces and the war resulted in a two-year stalemate along the 38th parallel. • THE RESULT • Korea remained divided along the 38th parallel. • NOTHING CHANGED, but Communism was contained.
The Formation of a Bipolar World • Confrontations in Korea and Cuba • Domino Theory – If one Asian country would fall to communism, then others would fall in a domino like effect.
The Formation of a Bipolar World • Confrontations with Korea and Cuba • April 17, 1961 • The Plan: Cuban refugees trained by the CIA would invade Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro. • The Result: TOTAL DISASTER!!! • U.S. looks ignorant and incompetent…
The Formation of a Bipolar World • Confrontations with Korea and Cuba • October 16, 1962- Spy plane photos revealed Soviet missile bases being built in Cuba. • Cuban Missile Crisis followed- A stand off between the S.U. and U.S. that nearly led to nuclear war.
The Formation of a Bipolar World • Confrontations with Korea and Cuba • Kennedy’s Options: • Negotiate with Khrushchev. • Invade Cuba. • Blockade Cuba. • Bomb the missile sites.
The Formation of a Bipolar World • Kennedy’s decision: • Naval Quarantine • Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles and Kennedy removed the blockade. • Kennedy removed missiles from Turkey.
The Formation of a Bipolar World • Cold War Societies • Soviet and U.S. societies were extremely different from one another • U.S. societies – U.S. had wonderful, modern new appliances and a fairly high standard of living. • Soviet societies – Little in home technology and lower standard of living. • Stages like the Olympics became peak points of competition and opportunities to prove superiority • Despite the intense competition, both countries were continually tempered by the threat of mutual destruction.
The Formation of a Bipolar World • Cold War Societies • Sputnik– Soviet satellite that was the first artificial satellite ever sent into space. • Confirmed American fears of Soviet technological superiority. • U.S. starts NASA. • U-2 Incident –American U-2 spy plane was shot down over Russia. • Intensified the Cold War conflict.
Challenges to the Superpower Hegemony • In most Soviet satellites, rebels and dissidents were crushed • The People’s Republic of China, however, stood up to the USSR and managed to maintain its own Marxist state independently. • Both powers suffered setbacks when they took on Vietnam and Afghanistan.
Challenges to Superpower Hegemony • Defiance, Dissent, and Intervention in Europe • After Stalin’s death, the new premier Nikita Khrushchev began a process of de-Stalinization, which ended the rule of terror and attempted to erase Stalin’s name and image from Soviet society. • Liberalized the government and soviet society.
Challenges to Superpower Hegemony • The People’s Republic of China • After Japan’s defeat in 1945, China broke into a state of Civil War • Nationalists vs. Communists • Communists victorious under Mao Zedong formed the People’s Republic of China • People’s Republic of China • Enacted major social reforms including banning child marriages, foot binding, and granting women access to divorce. • Collectivized agriculture • Formed close relationship with Russia, but by 1964 China had industrialized and their relationship with Russia had deteriorated • Also successfully tested nuclear weapons.
Challenges to Superpower Hegemony • Détente and the Decline of Superpower Influence • Détente – Reduction of hostilities between the U.S. and Soviet Union that began in the late 60s. • Vietnam War • North Vietnam – Communist • South Vietnam – Non-Communist • Viet Cong – Pro communist South Vietnamese • U.S. comes to aid of South Vietnam • Guerilla warfare and jungle war proved difficult and in 1973 the U.S. withdrew. • South Vietnam fell to communism 2 years later • Afghanistan • Pro- Soviet coup in 1978 made Afghanistan a communist nation • New government instituted reforms that led to intense backlash • Soviet forces aided the government against the mujahideen (Islamic Holy Warriors) • U.S. aides mujahideen • Soviet eventually withdrew after 9 years, and civil war erupted with the Taliban eventually coming to power in 1996
Challenges to Superpower Hegemony • Détente and the Decline of Superpower Influence • Countercultural movement and youth revolution • Young individuals in all parts of the world criticized the Cold War and traditional societal practices • Particularly intense opposition to in U.S. in response to the Vietnam War • Rock and Roll and music played an important part in the protest movements.
The End of the Cold War • Revolutions in Eastern and Central Europe • By 1989, most of the former Soviet countries of central and eastern Europe had succumbed to revolutions which threw off communism and Soviet rule • The Collapse of the Soviet Union • In the midst of economic collapse and revolution, Mikhail Gorbachev fell from favor and by 1991 lost power. • Rule fell to Boris Yeltsin who dismantled the Communist Party and pushed Russia toward a market economy. • By December 1991, the Soviet Union was no more. • Toward and Uncertain future • The world had been used to the power struggle between the U.S.A. and Soviet Union, and the fall of the Soviet Union meant a shift in power that is still working itself out today. • China, North Korea, etc…