BECOMING A WORLD POWER 1872 – 1912 Chapter 12
What is “Imperialism”? It is when a nation builds an empire by gaining political control over other countries.
During this era, economic and military competition from foreign nations convinced the United States it must be a world power. The United States became an empire when it acquired the Philippines and territory in the Caribbean. In addition, American influence in Central and South America grew as the U.S. took a more active role in Latin American affairs.
I. Building Support for Imperialism (def: The economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker nations.) Reasons: A. Desire for new markets 1. U.S. wanted to keep up with Europe (they built empires through overseas markets) 2. New markets would keep the economy strong.
3. To protect overseas investments, a country had to exert some control over those areas. a. Some areas became colonies. b. Some became protectorates (technically independent; imperial power protects them from invasion; advises them how to govern.)
B. Feeling of superiority 1. Idea that only strongest countries would survive – Social Darwinism 2. The feeling that English-speaking nations had superior ideas, character, and governments; were destinedto dominate the world..... (Anglo - Saxonism). 3. Josiah Strong - minister who preached that Americans had a duty to “civilize & Christianize heathen foreigners.”
Shopping in Somalia Shopping in Guatemala Where would you like to spend your Saturday? Why? Shopping in Houston Shopping in London
II. Expansion in the Pacific A. Japan had a closed society; wanted to avoid contact with Westerners that would supposedly destroy their culture. 1. Refused to trade with Americans 2. Commodore Matthew Perry took naval expedition to Japan to negotiate a treaty. a. The Japanese had never seen steamships; were awed & intimidated!
(Perry's Naval Expedition continued) b. Realized they couldn’t compete with American technology and weapons; signed a trade agreement. 3. Result: Japan began to westernize AND to build their own Asian empire!
B. Hawaii 1. 1819 - Arrival of first US missionaries 2. Discovered climate and soil perfect for growingsugarcane 3. Americans established huge plantations 4. Pressured king to accept new constitution a. Limited monarch's power. b. Increased planters’ power.
5. 1891 - Queen “Lil” took the throne. a. Disliked American settlers being there. b. Tried to reassert absolute authority as ruler of Hawaii. 6. American planters had her overthrown.
Trade & Diplomacy in Latin America • A. Conference held in 1880s to create alliance of • US and Latin America - Pan-Americanism • B. Hoped to keep European influence out of Latin • America. • C. Today: Organization of • American States (OAS) OAS Flag
Building a Modern Navy • A. Three crises that showed American willingness • to be assertive in foreign affairs: • 1. 1888- US willing to go to war to prevent • Germany from taking control of Samoan • Islands in the South Pacific.
2. 1891 - Mob in Chile attacked American sailors, killed some; US threatened war with Chile 3. 1895 - US backed Venezuela against Britain in a border dispute with the colony of British Guiana. ** All three crises were settled peacefully, but they showed that the US meant business!!! Which early 19th century U.S. foreign policy are you reminded of in regard to these two crises? Answer: Monroe Doctrine
B. Alfred T. Mahan wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1. Thesis: All great nations had strong naval power. 2. With a strong navy, US had to have foreign refueling stations; needed to build an empire to guarantee access to those refueling stations. C. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge led the effort to modernize US Navy. D. By 1890s - US had become one of the top naval powers in the world. Mahan Lodge
V. The Coming of War A. Cuban Rebellion Begins 1. Cuba was a Spanish colony; generated lots ofmoneyfor Spain; produced 1/3 of world’s sugar.
2. 1868 - Cuban rebels declared independence; launched guerilla war against Spain. a. Jose Marti - exiled Cuban leader. b. US & Cuba were linked economically; Cuban sugar went to the US; the US invested in Cuba’s mines, RRs, and sugar plantations. B. Americans supported the Cubans 1.Compared theirrebellion to American Revolution Jose Marti
2. US support fueled by yellow journalism (exaggerated/made-up stories to attract readers). Two newspapers owned by: a. William Randolph Hearst b. Joseph Pulitzer Locked in huge competition!! vs.
Y E L L O W JOURNALISM
C. Calls for War 1. US Battleship Maine exploded in Havana Harbor; 266 Americans killed. a. Reason unclear b. Yellow journalism said Spanish did it! US battle cry: “Remember the Maine!” 2. Jingoism(aggressive nationalism)was strong. D. US demands Spain leave Cuba; Spain declares war on US.
Artist’s rendition of the explosion aboard the Battleship Maine
VI. War on Two Fronts A. US Takes the Philippines 1. Philippines – Spanish colony; US invaded to keep Spain from attacking US on west coast. 2. Commodore George Dewey’s fleet – quick victory at Manila Bay. 3. More US troops sent; seized island of Guam. 4. Enlisted aid of Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo; at first he sided with US; then turned on them. Aguinaldo
* American Forces Battle in Cuba 1. American army poorly trained, supplied; hundreds died of disease in training camps. 2. “Rough Riders” - volunteer cavalry unit; second- in-command was Theodore Roosevelt. Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders
3. All-black 9th & 10th Cavalry Regiments, along with Rough Riders, charged up San Juan Hill at Santiago; defeated Spanish. 4. US troops also occupy Spanish Puerto Rico. 5. Spanish-American War ceasefire - 8/12/1898.
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VII. An American Empire is Born A. Debate over annexation of former Spanish territories 1. Imperialists’ arguments a. Territories would be valuable naval stations throughout the world. b. Would provide additional large markets for American goods. c. Americans could “civilize & Christianize”natives. ("White Man's Burden")
Mark Twain Andrew Carnegie 2.Anti-Imperialists’ arguments: (Ex: Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, etc.) a. Competition from cheap Filipino labor would drive down Americans’ wages. b. Imperialism is immoral and against American principles.
B. Treaty of Paris 1898- terms of the treaty: 1. Cuba - becomes independent from Spain. 2. US gets Puerto Rico & Guam 3. US pays Spain $20 million for the Philippines.
VIII. American Diplomacy in Asia A. Open Door Policy * China was carved up into“spheres of influence” - areas where only certain countries could trade.
2. US wanted in on the action; pushed for free trade for China; eventually got it! B. Boxer Rebellion 1. Some Chinese wanted to wipe out “foreign devils” and Christians; thought they were corrupting Chinese society. 2. Attacked foreign embassies in Beijing, killing and taking prisoners. 3. International force, including US, stepped in and quashed the rebellion.
The Boxers, also known as the Righteous and Harmonious Fists, were members of a secret society opposed to foreign influence in China. As the Boxers laid siege to the foreign embassies in Beijing, diplomats, foreign civilians, and Chinese Christians were trapped behind barricades for nearly 60 days before an international rescue team ended the uprising.
B. Balancing Power in East Asia 1. TR helped settle war between Japan and Russia; received Nobel Peace Prize. 2. Relations between Japan and US worsened! 3. 1907 - President TR sent 16 battleships on a world voyage to show US power – Great White Fleet.
IX. A Growing Presence in the Caribbean A. Panama Canal 1. 1901- US and Brits sign Hay-Pauncefote Treaty –gave US the right to build and control any canal through Central America. Signing of the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
2. French company had tried it; failed due to bankruptcy and loss of life from disease. 3. Nicaragua or Panama (controlled byColombia)? B. Revolt in Panama 1. US helped to wage uprising in Panama against Colombia. 2. US recognized Panama’s independence. C. Roosevelt Corollary (to the Monroe Doctrine) 1. TR’s philosophy: “Speak softly and carry a big stick” –Get what you want by showing power; then, hopefully won’t have to use it!
3. Corollary: US would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary to maintain economic and political stability in the Western Hemisphere. D. President Taft (TR’s successor) 1. Continued TR’s policies…BUT… 2. Placed less emphasis on military force and more on helping Latin American industry; became known as Dollar Diplomacy(“substituting dollarsfor bullets”)
Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. the actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over a smaller or weaker nation __ 2. a policy of joining the business interests of a country with its diplomatic interests abroad __ 3. a country that is technically independent but is actually under the control of another country __ 4. extreme nationalism marked by aggressive foreign policy A. imperialism B. protectorate C. yellow journalism D. jingoism E. sphere of influence F. Open Door policy G. dollar diplomacy A G B D
Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 5. type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers __ 6. a policy that allowed each foreign nation in China to trade freely in the other nations’ spheres of influence __ 7. section of a country where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers A. imperialism B. protectorate C. yellow journalism D. jingoism E. sphere of influence F. Open Door policy G. dollar diplomacy C F E
WARM-UP Briefly analyze this cartoon. Does it make a case for or against imperialist efforts in the 19th and 20th centuries?
WARM-UP What issue is behind this cartoon? What symbolisms does the cartoonist use to portray his opinion?