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Chapter 2. Communications, Networks, the Internet, and the World Wide Web. CHAPTER 2 OBJECTIVES. Define communications Identify the basic components of a communications system Describe how and why network computers are used in schools and school districts Explain how the Internet works.

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

Communications, Networks, the Internet, and the World Wide Web

chapter 2 objectives
CHAPTER 2 OBJECTIVES
  • Define communications
  • Identify the basic components of a communications system
  • Describe how and why network computers are used in schools and school districts
  • Explain how the Internet works
chapter 2 objectives3
CHAPTER 2 OBJECTIVES
  • Describe the World Wide Web portion of the Internet
  • Explain how Web documents are linked to one another
  • Explain the use of Web browser software
  • Explain how to use a Web search tool to find information
chapter 2 objectives4
CHAPTER 2 OBJECTIVES
  • Identify several types of multimedia products available on the Web
  • Explain how Internet services such as e-mail, newsgroups, chat rooms, and instant messaging work
  • Describe the educational implications of the Internet and the World Wide Web
  • Describe different ways to connect to the Internet and the World Wide Web
what is communications
WHAT IS COMMUNICATIONS?
  • A process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information
  • Sometimes called telecommunications
what is communications6
WHAT IS COMMUNICATIONS?
  • Electronic mail (e-mail)
  • Voice mail
  • Fax (facsimile)
  • Telecommuting
  • Online services
  • Videoconferencing
  • Internet
  • World Wide Web
communications networks
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
  • Basic communications system
    • Two computers, one to send and one to receive data
    • Communications devices that send and receive data
    • A communications channel over which data is sent
communications networks9
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
  • Communications channel
    • Transmissions media
      • Twisted-pair cable
communications networks10
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
  • Digital vs. analog signals
    • Modem
      • External modem
      • Internal modem
    • Network interface cards
communications networks11
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
  • Local Area Networks (LAN)
    • Covers limited geographical area
    • Server manages resources
  • Wide Area Networks (WAN)
    • Covers large geographical area
    • Can consist of several LANs
communications networks12
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
  • Home Networks
    • Connects multiple computers in your home
    • Share Internet access and resources
networking the classroom school and district
NETWORKING THE CLASSROOM, SCHOOL, AND DISTRICT
  • School network server
  • Example classroom
    • Three Macintosh computers
    • Printer
networking the classroom school and district14
NETWORKING THE CLASSROOM, SCHOOL, AND DISTRICT
  • Example school network
    • Classrooms
    • Administration
    • Computer lab
  • Example school district
    • Central office
    • Various schools
wireless schools and classrooms
WIRELESS SCHOOLS AND CLASSROOMS
  • Keep in touch with family and friends from anywhere
    • Smart pagers
    • Cellular telephones
    • Handheld computers
    • Notebook computers
  • Wireless technology brings the computer lab to students
high speed or broadband access
HIGH SPEED OR BROADBAND ACCESS
  • Government works to provide high speed Internet access to classrooms
  • Broadband technology transmits signals at much faster speeds
the benefits of computer networks in education
THE BENEFITS OF COMPUTER NETWORKS IN EDUCATION
  • Sharing of computer hardware, software, and data resources
  • Unlimited educational resources
  • Communicate with other educators and students
what is the internet
WHAT IS THE INTERNET?
  • Worldwide group of connected networks that allow public access to information and services
  • No single organization owns or controls
  • Estimated 500 million users
  • Variety of uses
slide21

The world’s largest network is the Internet, which is a worldwide collection of networks that link together millions of businesses, governments, educational institutions, and individuals.

history of the internet
HISTORY OF THE INTERNET
  • Started as a network of four computers at in both California and Utah in 1969
  • Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) - ARPANET
  • More than 35 million computers today
  • Backbone first provided by National Science Foundation (NSF) - NSFnet
history of the internet24
HISTORY OF THE INTERNET
  • Backbone now provided by variety of corporations
  • Various organizations help define standards
  • Internet2 (I2)
    • Extremely high-speed network
    • Develop and test latest Internet technologies
    • Members include over 190 universities in the United States, along with 60 companies and the United States government
how the internet works
HOW THE INTERNET WORKS
  • Data is divided into packets
  • Routers send packets across the Internet
  • Packet switching
  • Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) is the communications protocol used by the Internet
how the internet works27
HOW THE INTERNET WORKS
  • Internet Service Providers versus Online Service Providers
    • Have permanent connections to the Internet
    • Provide temporary connections to individuals and companies for a fee
    • Local and national ISPs
    • Online service providers offer members only areas
how the internet works28
HOW THE INTERNET WORKS
  • Connecting to the Internet
    • Business or school network connected to the Internet
    • Dial-up access
    • ISDN
    • Cable TV (CATV)
    • Digital subscriber line (DSL)
how the internet works30
HOW THE INTERNET WORKS
  • The Internet Backbone
    • Acts as a highway
    • Local ISPs connect through leased lines to national ISPs
how the internet works32
HOW THE INTERNET WORKS
  • Internet Addresses
    • Numeric addresses
    • Domain name
      • Domain type abbreviations
      • Country code abbreviations
the world wide web www
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Started in the early 1990s
  • Hyperlinks
  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
  • Hypertext transfer protocol
the world wide web www36
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • How a Web Page Works
    • Hypertext
    • Hyperlinks
      • Target
      • Relative
      • Absolute
the world wide web www37
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Discovery learning
  • Web Surfing
  • Webmaster
  • Hypertext markup language (HTML)
  • Web publishing
the world wide web www38
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Web Browser Software
    • Interprets HTML and displays Web pages and enables you to link to other Web pages and Web sites
the world wide web www39
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Web Browser Software
    • Mosaic
    • Netscape Navigator
    • Microsoft Internet Explorer
the world wide web www40
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Searching for Information on the Web
    • Directory maintained by a search engine company
    • Helps find information on the Web
    • Search engine
    • Subject directory
the world wide web www41
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Multimedia on the Web
    • Web pages incorporate graphics, animation, audio, video, and virtual reality
    • Plug-ins
the world wide web www42
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Multimedia on the Web
    • Graphics
      • Used to enhance text-based Internet
the world wide web www43
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Multimedia on the Web
    • Graphics
      • Graphics formats
the world wide web www44
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Multimedia on the Web
    • Graphics
      • Thumbnails
the world wide web www45
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Multimedia on the Web
    • Animation
      • Marquees
      • Animated GIFs
the world wide web www46
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Multimedia on the Web
    • Audio
      • MP3 format
        • MP3 player
      • Streaming audio
      • RealAudio
the world wide web www47
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Multimedia on the Web
    • Video
      • Streaming video
      • RealVideo
the world wide web www48
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
  • Multimedia on the Web
    • Virtual Reality
      • Simulation of real or imagined environment that appears as a three-dimensional (3-D) space
      • VR worlds
slide49

This instructional Web site uses VR to teach biology students about cells and body tissues.

other internet services
OTHER INTERNET SERVICES
  • E-mail
    • Primary communication method for both personal and business use
    • E-mail programs
      • Mailbox
      • Mail server
    • E-mail address
      • User name
other internet services51
OTHER INTERNET SERVICES
  • FTP (file transfer protocol)
    • FTP sites and servers
    • Allows file downloads and uploads
    • Anonymous FTP
    • FTP programs
other internet services52
OTHER INTERNET SERVICES
  • Newsgroups and Message Boards
    • Newsgroup – online area in which users conduct written discussions about a particular subject
      • Usenet
    • News server
    • News reader
    • Article
    • Posting
    • Threaded discussion
other internet services53
OTHER INTERNET SERVICES
  • Newsgroups and Message Boards
    • Message Boards – easier to use than newsgroups
other internet services54
OTHER INTERNET SERVICES
  • Mailing Lists
    • Group of e-mail names and addresses given a single name
    • Subscribing and unsubscribing
    • LISTSERVs
other internet services55
OTHER INTERNET SERVICES
  • Chat Rooms
    • Real-time conversation
    • Chat rooms
    • Chat clients
      • IRC (Internet relay chat)
      • Microsoft Chat
other internet services57
OTHER INTERNET SERVICES
  • Instant Messaging
    • See when one or more people are online
    • Exchange messages and files
    • Join a private chat room
  • Short Message Service (SMS)
    • Send and receive text messages from Web-enabled devices
netiquette
NETIQUETTE
  • Internet etiquette
    • The code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the Internet
internet security
INTERNET SECURITY
  • Firewall
  • Filtering software
  • Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)
the impact of the internet and the world wide web on education
THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNET AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB ON EDUCATION
  • The Web is the Gutenberg press of modern times
  • Collaboration with other teachers and students
    • ePALS
  • New instructional strategies
the future of the internet and the world wide web
THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNET AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB
  • Will connect 80 percent of the world’s computers in a few years
  • More than a billion wireless communication devices will be in use by the middle of the decade
  • All K-12 teachers will have access to the Internet in their classrooms
  • Wireless technology will become commonplace in K-12 education
the future of the internet and the world wide web64
THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNET AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB
  • Everyday appliances with embedded computers will have Internet access
  • More intelligent and focused Web search capabilities
  • 100 to 1,000 times faster in a few years
  • Business will continue to be the driving force
the future of the internet and the world wide web65
THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNET AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB
  • Increased access speeds and greater availability will allow teachers and students to view thousands of videos
  • The Web will become an integral part of all education and will revolutionize the way students learn core subjects
chapter summary
CHAPTER SUMMARY
  • Define communications
  • Identify the basic components of a communications system
  • Describe how and why network computers are used in schools and school districts
  • Explain how the Internet works
chapter summary67
CHAPTER SUMMARY
  • Describe the World Wide Web portion of the Internet
  • Specify how Web documents are linked to one another
  • Explain the use of browser software
  • Explain how to use a Web search tool to find information
chapter summary68
CHAPTER SUMMARY
  • Identify several types of multimedia products available on the Web
  • Explain how Internet services, such as e-mail, newsgroups, chat rooms, and instant messaging work
  • Describe the educational implications of the Internet and the World Wide Web
  • Describe how to connect to the Internet and the World Wide Web
slide70

GUIDE TO WORLD

WIDE WEB SITES AND

SEARCHING TECHNIQUES

slide71

An extensive, current list of Web sites in various categories can be found at: http://www.scsite.com/tdc3

Click the Special Feature, Guide to WWW Sites link on the left sidebar

using a subject directory
USING A SUBJECT DIRECTORY
  • Provides categorized lists of links
  • Arranged by subjects
  • This example will show you how to find information on Mark Twain’s childhood
using a subject directory73
USING A SUBJECT DIRECTORY

Start your browser and enter the URL www.yahoo.com in the Address box. When the Yahoo! home page appears, point to the Literature link below Arts & Humanities. You point to Literature because that is the category in which Mark Twain made his contributions.

using a subject directory74
USING A SUBJECT DIRECTORY

Click Literature. When the Literature page appears, point to the Authors link. You point to Authors because Mark Twain was an author. Each time you click a category link, you move closer to the topic.

using a subject directory75
USING A SUBJECT DIRECTORY

Click Authors. When the Authors page appears, scroll down and point to the letter T in the alphabetical site listings. (You can also find information about Mark Twain by clicking the Literary Fiction link.)

using a subject directory76
USING A SUBJECT DIRECTORY

Click the letter T. The browser window displays an alphabetical listing of authors whose last names begin with T, as well as other author-related organizations that begin with T. Scroll down and then point to the Twain, Mark (1835-1910) link.

using a subject directory77
USING A SUBJECT DIRECTORY

Click Twain, Mark (1835-1910). When the page appears, scroll down and then point to the Mark Twain Papers & Project link.

using a subject directory78
USING A SUBJECT DIRECTORY

Click the Mark Twain Papers & Projects link. When the page appears, click the links one at a time. Use the browser’s Back button to Return to The Mark Twain Papers & Project page after viewing the page associated with each link.

using a search engine
USING A SEARCH ENGINE
  • Search many Web sites for information you are seeking
  • Carefully craft your keywords to limit the search
  • This example uses the Google search engine to search for the phrase, mark twain papers
using a search engine80
USING A SEARCH ENGINE

Start your browser and then enter the URL http://www.google.comin the Address box. When the Google home page appears, type mark twain papers in the Search text box and then point to the Google Search button.

using a search engine81
USING A SEARCH ENGINE

Click the Google Search button. When the results of the search appear, scroll through the links and read the descriptions. Point to the Mark Twain Papers & Project link.

using a search engine82
USING A SEARCH ENGINE
  • Click the Mark Twain Papers & Project link. A Web page appears that contains extensive information about the collected original documents by and about Mark Twain
guidelines to successful searching
GUIDELINES TO SUCCESSFUL SEARCHING
  • Use nouns as keywords, and put the most important terms first in your keyword
  • Use the asterisk (*) to find plurals of words
  • Type keywords in lowercase to find both lowercase and uppercase variations
guidelines to successful searching85
GUIDELINES TO SUCCESSFUL SEARCHING
  • Use quotation marks to create phrases so the search engine finds the exact sequence of words
  • Use a hyphen alternative
    • E-mail or email
  • Limit the search by language
  • Use uppercase characters for Boolean operators
guidelines to successful searching86
GUIDELINES TO SUCCESSFUL SEARCHING
  • Before you use a search engine, read its Help
  • The Internet contains many search engines. If your search is unsuccessful with one search engine, try another
popular search sites
Google

google.com

AllTheWeb

alltheweb.com

Yahoo!

yahoo.com

MSN Search

search.msn.com

AOL Search

search.aol.com

POPULAR SEARCH SITES
popular portals
POPULAR PORTALS
  • Ask Jeeves
    • askjeeves.com
  • HotBot
    • hotbot.com
  • Lycos
    • lycos.com
  • LookSmart
    • looksmart.com
  • AltaVista
    • altavista.com
popular portals89
POPULAR PORTALS
  • Netscape Search
    • search.netscape.com
  • Overture
    • overture.com
  • InfoSpace
    • infospace.com
popular education search tools
POPULAR EDUCATION SEARCH TOOLS
  • Ask Jeeves for Kids
    • ajkids.com
  • Awesome Library
    • awesomelibrary.org
  • Ben’s Guide to U.S. Government for Kids
    • bensguide.gpo.gov
  • Blue Web’N
    • www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/bluewebn
  • Busy Teachers’ Web Site K-12
    • www.ceismc.gatech.edu/busyt
popular education search tools91
POPULAR EDUCATION SEARCH TOOLS
  • Education Index
    • educationindex.com
  • Education World
    • www.education-world.com
  • EduHound
    • www.eduhound.com
  • emTech
    • www.emtech.net
  • FirstGov for Kids
    • kids.gov
popular education search tools92
POPULAR EDUCATION SEARCH TOOLS
  • Great Web Sites for Kids
    • www.ala.org/alsc/children_links.html
  • Kathy Schrock’s Guide for Educators
    • school.discovery.com/schrockguide
  • KidsClick!
    • sunsite.berkeley.edu/KidsClick!
  • Kid’s Search Tools
    • www.rcls.org/ksearch.htm
  • Learning Page
    • learningpage.com
popular education search tools93
POPULAR EDUCATION SEARCH TOOLS
  • Sites for Teachers
    • www.sitesforteachers.com
  • STEM-NET Theme Pages for Elementary Students and Teachers
    • www.stemnet.nf.ca/CUTE/themes.html
  • The Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM)
    • www.thegateway.org
  • TekMom’s Search Tools for Students
    • tekmom.com/search
  • Yahooligans
    • www.yahooligans.com