European and American Imperialism
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European and American Imperialism. The New Imperialism. In the 1800s European nations began a new push ** IMPERIALISM  the extension of a nation’s power over other lands for economic and political gain. Essay  Explain why Westerners began to increase their search for colonies after 1880.

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The New Imperialism

In the 1800s European nations began a new push ** IMPERIALISM the extension of a nation’s power over other lands for economic and political gain.

Essay Explain why Westerners began to increase their search for colonies after 1880


*Colonial possessions became a symbol of power

*Nations raced to gain control of as much territory as possible to demonstrate their strength compared to other nations


*Access to raw materials such as rubber, oil, and tin

*Access to new markets to sell goods to in Asia, Africa, and Latin America


*Europeans believed that they had a moral responsibility to civilize primitive people

The Constantly Changing White House 1880-1900

**Direct Rule officials from the mother country were put in charge of taxes, law and order, and other government business inside the colonial possession

-Great Britain and France still used this method in areas of Asia where they had to overthrow a popular government to take control.

Concerns and Issues for the Colonizing Countries

-Colonial powers did not want their colonies to develop their own industries.

-Colonial powers feared giving the native peoples political rights because they might want full participation in government.

-Native people worked on plantations for wages kept at poverty levels.

*The White Man’s Burden European belief that God supported White Supremacy. Thus, they believed they had a moral responsibility to civilize the natives in Africa.

-Colonial governments kept taxes high on the peasants.

Imperialism in INDIA

Throughout the first half of the 1800s great portions of India were under the control of a British land company called the British East India Company (sort of like in the American colonies

In 1860 a Indian rebellion was crushed, and the British government took governing power away from the East India Company.


BRITISH RULE IN INDIA….Good, Bad, and Ugly


1. British manufactured goods destroyed local industries (like Wal-Mart runs local business into bankruptcy

2. The British government charged so much in taxes that Indian peasants were forced to become tenant farmers or give up their land completely.

3. ***The British government also forced many farmers to quit growing crops to produce cotton. THIS LEAD TO A FOOD SHORTAGE IN INDIA THAT CAUSED THRITY MILLION INIANS TO STARVE TO DEATH BY 1900

Getting Hindus and Muslims to Work Together

The fighting between the Hindus and the Muslims in India kept the Indian people from getting the British government to grant them more political freedom

**Mohandas Gandhi

-native born Indian who was educated in England and went to work as a lawyer serving the interests of Indian workers in South Africa.

-In 1915 Gandhi returned to India to take over the Nationalist movement and fight for the rights of the Indian people!

The Work of Gandhi

Gandhi’s Plan of Attack????


  • Gandhi encouraged forms of Civil Disobedience….which is protest that breaks laws w/o hurting people in the process. By breaking unjust laws, people can call attention to the abuses being committed by the oppressive government.

2. Boycotts…Gandhi called upon Indian citizens to quite buying into British manufactured goods. Relying on British business for goods only made the people of India more dependent on Great Britain

U.S. Imperialism

  • Why Would the U.S. Start to Branch Outside its borders?

  • Imperialism The U.S. saw the money that could be made from establishing colonies. The U.S. government eyed Latin American and Caribbean because of its sugar and fruit plantations.

  • Manifest DestinyThe U.S. believed it was our God given right to extend ourselves outside our own borders and share our practices with others.

It All Started in the Pacific

**Open Door Policy Signed with China in the 1850s this treaty allowed for free trade between all nations in the Pacific Ocean….this opened China and Japan to trade with the United States.

Taking Over hawaii!

Hawaii was an island KINGDOM in the Pacific halfway between the United States and Japan. It was the perfect spot for ships to stop and refuel and……………it was a goldmine for American fruit companies

In 1891, *Queen Liliuokalani, the last monarch of Hawaii, tried to force Americans evacuate from her kingdom.

*In 1893U.S. marines helped a group of Hawaiian planters who were making money from U.S. involvement overthrow the monarchy and set up a new government!

The Standoff in Cuba

Cuba was a Spanish colony 80 miles off the coast of Florida and the scene of the next American military encounter!

A Group of Cuban exiles had been training in the United States of 15 years to re-enter Cuba and seize control away from the Spanish colonial government…in 1895 they got their chance

The Cuban exiles took advantage of aeconomic crisis in Cuba to invade the country and managed to seize control of Eastern Cuba and declare their independence in September, 1895.

The Spanish sent its army across the Atlantic to take back the land from the Cuban rebels.

President McKinley tries to resist Pressure

McKinley did not like war and truly wanted to stay out of the dispute between Spain and the Cubans.


February 1898….

*President McKinley sent the battleship MAINE to Havana, Cuba to evacuate American business men and their families that were living in Cuba if the fighting got to dangerous

Anticipating War…Spain declared war on the U.S. April 24, 1898…..McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war the next day

Twisting the Arm of Spain

For Centuries Spain had been a World Power. The United States was proving that it was the true force to be reckoned with!

BY JULY 1898….

-U.S. Ground Forces had captured or surrounded most of the major cities in Cuba

-U.S. had destroyed the Spanish Navy in the Pacific

-U.S. had captured Guam and forts in Puerto Rico under Spanish control

At the end of July the Spanish government asked for peace….TREATY OF PARIS (12/10/1898)

1. Cuba gains independence 2. U.S. Pays $20 mil for Philippines3. U.S. annexes Puerto Rico and Guam

Teddy Roosevelt’s TOUGH Foreign Policy

Big Problems in ColumbiaThe U.S. was doing so much business in the Pacific Ocean it became necessary to find easy access from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Building a canal became the popular proposal and COLUMBIA controlled the best spot to build the canal…the Isthmus of Panama

OPPORTUNITY Panama was a colony of the Columbian government and the people of Panama were waging a revolution against Columbia to gain their independence.

Roosevelt ignored Columbia’s right to control their own land and sent navy warships to Panama to prevent Columbia from sending troops in to put down the revolt. The revolt was successful and Panama declared its independence in 1903

Roosevelt Places His Finger on Latin America

The New Panamanian government gave the U.S. rights to a 10 mile strip of land called the Canal Zone. Here the U.S. build the Panama Canal which connected the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean

-Roosevelt’s decision to aid the revolution against Columbia was criticized throughout the world. (A Imperialist Tyrant!)

-In 1999 the U.S. government turned full control over the canal zone to the Panamanian government.

Roosevelt Talks Tough and Backs it Up

Roosevelt Made Two Very Strong Stances to Put European Nations in their Place and Clean up the Economic Messes of our Neighbors to the South!

*Big Stick Diplomacy

Stated that the U.S. would remain the dominant force in the Western Hemisphere and anyone who interfered with our interests in the west would be met with military force!

*Roosevelt Corollary


From 1908-1922 the U.S. set up new governments in Nicaragua, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Cuba, and the Virgin Islands


Lets look at a couple samples of how questions look on the OGT that will test your knowledge of European and American imperialism

A. to provide the U.S. with a

valuable naval base in the


B. to provide the U.S. with a place

to relocate its immigrant


C. to decrease the U.S. need to

export raw materials for


D. to increase the U.S. population

by extending citizenship to the


During the Spanish-American War, the U.S. Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay in the Philippines. The U.S. Congress later voted for annexation of the Philippines.

What was one reason for this act of U.S. imperialism?


Lets look at a couple samples of how questions look on the OGT that will test your knowledge of European and American imperialism

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, U.S. foreign policy was closely tied to domestic economic

concerns. The annexation of

Hawaii, the Open Door Policy with China, and the construction of the

Panama Canal in Latin America were all motivated by an interest in

A. breaking up monopolies and


B. extending land grants for

railroad construction.

C. acquiring new markets and

sources of raw materials.

D. limiting the powerof labor

unions to strike.


Lets look at a couple samples of how questions look on the OGT that will test your knowledge of European and American imperialism

A. loss of political independence.

B. fewer agricultural products for

foreign trade.

C. new national boundaries based

on ethnic and cultural similarities.

D. global appreciation for African

cultures and encouragement of

their development.

In the 19th century, European countries claimed that the conquest of Africa would bring the benefits of Western civilization to that continent.

From the perspective of African peoples, the effect was

Forms of Government

Lets look at a couple samples of how questions look on the OGT that will test your knowledge of forms of Imperialism. The following is an example of a 2 point writing question on the OGT.


.A canal at the Isthmus of Panama would reduce U.S. shipping costs and avoid the

necessity of maintaining separate navies in the Atlantic and Pacific.

The United States fulfilled one of its imperialist ambitions in the early 20th century by acquiring land to build the Panama Canal. State two reasons (political and/or economic)

why U. S. imperialists wanted to

build the canal.

Write your answer in the Answer

Document. (2 points)

• would achieve world power status

• would facilitate U.S. trade with Asia

• would ensure control of trade routes across the Atlantic from Europe to Asia

• would shorten shipping times between coasts (variant on shipping costs)

• would facilitate the movement of naval vessels to different areas of need