CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS 1961
Political leaders • Cuban President: Fidel Castro • Soviet Leader: Nikita Khrushchev • US President: Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953 – Jan 1961) John F. Kennedy (Jan 1961 - 1963 Communist Party of Cuba Communist Party of the Soviet Union Republican Party Democratic Party
Ideologies Castro • Socialist • Improve social welfare • Get rid of neo-imperial dominance of the US in Cuba Eisenhower/Kennedy • Capitalism • Expansion of influence in Cuba
Political situation • Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the superpowers came towards a nuclear war • Downfall in Cuban economy accepted oil from the Soviet at below-the-market prices • US refused to refine the oil Cuba nationalized American industries • anti-Castro exiles to overthrow the Cuban government were developed Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961
Bay of pigs (April 1961) • 1500 exiles landed on the beach in attempts to dig • Cubans supported Cuban revolutionaries • US was not prepared for this takeover It was clear to Cuba and the USSR that the US wanted to overthrow the Cuban government • US behalf: failure • Cuban response: install nuclear weaponry
Soviet involvement • Under potential nuclear attacks by the US due to weaponry that they placed in Britain, Italy and the Jupiter missile in Turkey • Wanted to help revolutionize Cuba Latin American and Caribbean revolution
Nuclear weaponry (1962) • Medium range ballistic missiles (MRBM) range between 1000km – 3000km • Washington ignored reports by US intelligence operatives of increased Soviet activity • October 16, 1962: US U2 plane identified the missile sites • October 17, 1962: CIA reports that the missiles could kill 80 million Americans; US planes detected 20 Russian ships travelling to Cuba • October 27, 1962: U2 was shot down by a Russian missile and killed the pilot major threat to the US October 24, 1962 – Cuban Missile Launch Site
Is it another war? “Why shouldn’t the Soviet Union have the right to do the same as America?” – Nikita Khrushchev • Soviet ship sent to Cuba, worrying the US of provoking war • Kennedy’s televised address to the country warned them of the situation • Result: communication between Khrushchev and Kennedy led to the ship turning back
Style of conflict • Brinksmanship • Prevention of war due to Mutual assured destruction • Nuclear deterrence overpowered an actual nuclear war • Consequence: arms race, stock piling, increased security measures, economic support • Benefit: averts outbreak of war and death tolls of combatants • Historian David G. Coleman analyzes the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis: • “Significantly, the Soviets had lied directly to the Americans before, and this led to a major trust issue in the wake of the crisis. This is one of the things that really dominated the initial discussions.”
What were the types of settlements which concluded the war, conflict, dispute?
Result • Negotiations were made between Khrushchev and Kennedy through the mediation of the United Nations. • Ended with the removal of missiles in Cuba and later in Turkey with the ultimate decision to limit nuclear testing. • "hotline" was established between the Kremlin and the White House for direct communication in order to avoid the risk of staring another nuclear war over poor communications.
Role of the united nations • October 24, 1962, Secretary General of the United Nations, U.Thant • Focused on temporarily halting military movement and missile activity in order to prolong negotiations. • Made appeals to Khrushchev and Kennedy: 1. Appealed to allow time to resolve the crisis peacefully, this eased the pressures of the crisis and allowed for leaders to calmly and critically assess the situation. 2. Requested moderation, this removed tensions as there were less military stress and Khrushchev kept his ships away from Cuba.
Two main issues of the conflict • The Missiles in Cuba. • Cuba’s security concerns.
October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missiles as long as Kennedy left Cuba alone. • Dismantling the missiles was a slow process • November 20, 1962, Kennedy ended the U.S. Navy quarantine with his announcement that all known missiles in Cuba has been shut down. • January 1963, at the United Nations, the U.S. and Soviet governments formally declared an end to the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty on August 5, 1963 SIGNED BY THE UNITED STATES, THE UNITED KINGDOM, AND THE SOVIET UNION
British cartoon from October 29, 1962 “Ok Mr. president, let’s talk”
Kennedy and Krushchev by Herbert Block
Works cited • n.a. "The Crisis Ends." Oracle Think Quest. N.p.. Web. 20 Feb 2013. <http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/conclusion.html>. • n.a. "Cuban Missile Crisis." Something About Everything Military. N.p.. Web. 20 Feb 2013. <http://www.jcs-group.com/military/warsmaller/1962cuban1.html>. • n.a. "The Cuban Missile Crisis." History Today. N.p.. Web. 20 Feb 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/john-swift/cuban-missile-crisis>. • n.a. "UN Played Critical Role in Diffusing Cuban Missile Crisis." CeaseFire.ca. N.p.. Web. 20 Feb 2013. <http://www.ceasefire.ca/?p=13206>. • DORN, A. WALTER, and ROBERT PAUK. "THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS RESOLVED: Untold Story of an Unsung Hero." . N.p.. Web. 20 Feb 2013. <http://www.walterdorn.org/pub/8>.