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Diversity of Life: Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Classifying Plants. Classifying Plants. Non Vascular Plants Seedless Vascular Plants Seed Plants. Non Vascular Plants. Lack vascular tissue ( tubelike structures that carry food, water and nutrients) for transporting materials. Characteristics:

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Diversity of Life: Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Classifying Plants


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    1. Diversity of Life: Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Classifying Plants

    2. Classifying Plants • Non Vascular Plants • Seedless Vascular Plants • Seed Plants

    3. Non Vascular Plants • Lack vascular tissue (tubelike structures that carry food, water and nutrients) for transporting materials. • Characteristics: • Low-growing- b/c not tissue to support or transport materials • Thin cell wall- so can’t grow more than a few cm tall • No root- has rhizoids- anchors plant & absorbs water & nutrients

    4. Non Vascular Plants: Examples • Mosses • More than 10,000 species • Rhizoids anchor the moss and absorb water & nutrients • Grows a long, slender stalk with a capsule at the end • Capsule (cell capable of surviving unfavorable conditions & then growing into a new organism) contains spores for reproduction

    5. Non Vascular Plants: Examples Liverworts Hornworts Horn-like, curved structures Fewer than 100 species Usually live in moist soil or mixed in with grass plants • Human liver shape • More than 8,000 species • Found growing as thick crust on moist rocks or soil along sides of stream

    6. Seedless Vascular Plants • Have Vascular Tissue (Tall) • Can grow tall b/c they can effectively transport materials throughout the plant • Strengthens the plants’ body and gives stability/ also has strong cell walls • Reproduce by releasing spores

    7. Seedless Vascular Plants • Two types of vascular tissue • Phloem: vascular tissue through which food moves within some plants • Xylem: vascular tissue though which water and minerals move within some plants

    8. Examples of SeedlessVascular Plants • Ferns- more than 12, 000 species alive today • Range in size – tiny up to 5 meters tall • Thrives in shaded areas & moist soil • Some green all year round & some turn brown in fall then regrow in spring • Structure- stems, roots, leaves • Stems- most grow underground • leaves- upward from top of stem • Roots- downward from bottom of stem • Frond- ferns’ leaves- coated with a cuticle (waxy coating) that helps plant retain moisture

    9. Examples of Seedless Vascular Plants • Club Mosses & Horsetails • Have true stems, roots, leaves • Few species alive today • Club Mosses • Not true moss b/c have vascular tissue • Found in moist woodlands & near streams • Horsetails • Only 30 species alive today • In Colonial times Americans used to scrub pots & pans

    10. Seed Plants • Seed plants • Outnumber seedless plants 10 to 1 • We eat them, wear clothes made from them, homes built out of them, they produce oxygen • 2 Important characteristics • Have vascular tissue • Have pollen & seeds to reproduce • Other characteristics • Roots, stems, leaves • Most live on land: challenges- standing upright & supplying all cells with food & water (job of vascular tissue) Giant Sequoia

    11. Seed Plants: Pollen & Seeds • Can live in a variety of environments (unlike seedless plants) • Need water for fertilization to occur • Produce pollen- tiny structures that contain the cells that will later become sperm cells • Pollen- delivers sperm cells to egg cells • Sperm cell Fertilizes egg cell SEED develops • Seed- structure that contains a young plant inside a protective covering

    12. Seed Plants: Gymnosperms • Gymnosperm- a seed plant that produces “naked” seeds (not enclosed by a protective fruit) • Many have needlelike or scale like leaves • Deep growing root systems • Oldest type of seed plant

    13. Seed Plants: Gymnosperms • 4 Types • Cyads: in tropical/subtropical ex-palm trees • Conifers: “cone bearing” ex- evergreens • Ginkgoes: Ginkgo biloba(last species alive, Chinese & Japanese cared for it in gardens) • Gnetophytes: hot desert/tropical regions, some trees, shrubs and vines

    14. Seed Plants: Angiosperms • Flowering Plants • Produce flowers • Produce seeds enclosed in fruits • Live almost everywhere on Earth (jungles, arctic, deserts, ocean’s edge, ect…) • 2 types: monocotyledon and dicotyledon

    15. Seed Plants: Angiosperms

    16. Seed Plants: Angiosperms Monocot Examples Dicot Examples