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History of Architecture

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  1. History of Architecture Taken from the book, A History of Architecture, Settings and Rituals, By Spiro Kostof

  2. Why study the history of Architecture? • Material Theater of Human Activity • Architecture is a social act in Method & Purpose • Evolution of Building Techniques • Footings and Foundations • Stone Walls, Pillarsand Columns • Roofs: domes, arches and vaults • Materials: stone, wood, iron, steel, concrete…

  3. How do we study the history of our built environment? Consider this: • 1. the Whole Project- Structure & Form • 2. the Setting • 3. Treat all buildings with equal Curiosity • 4. Time & Purpose • What ritual took place there?

  4. 3 Classes of Architecture • Shelter • Boundary • Monument

  5. Terra Amata, France (400,000 BC) The oldest artificial structure

  6. The Cave at Lascaux, France (18,000 BC) Community Project Sacred Reverence for animals

  7. Megalithic Monuments:Ggantija, Malta & Stonehenge, England3000-2750 BC • First Temple dedicated to fertility, the dead, and the underworld • Thought out and reproducable and the the first true building type. -Organization of space to celebrate heavenly events -Open air observatory Function = activity without reference to human involvement Ritual= transcendence of function to the level of a meaningful act

  8. Jericho, Ancient Palestine 7500 BC Population: 3000 Houses, Public Buildings, Defensive Walls

  9. Ziggurat of Ur Nammu, 2000 BC • Hanging Gardens of Babylon

  10. Giza Pyramids, Lower Egypt, 2570 BC

  11. Karnak, Temple of Amaon, Thebes 1525 BC

  12. Walls to Columns in Ancient Greece Knossos, 1400 BC Acropolis, 500 BC What is an acropolis? Greek Theater- AkropolisLindos, Rhodes

  13. the ColosseumRoman Empire, 72 AD

  14. Hagia Sophia- 360 AD Istanbul, Turkey • Remained the world’s largest Cathedral for over 1,000 years.

  15. Arles, France5th– 8th Century, the Dark Ages A typical Medieval Town

  16. The Great Mosque, 780 ADCordoba, Spain

  17. The Americas Cuzco, Peru Tikal, Guatemala Tenochtitlan, Mexico Cholula, Mexico

  18. Three Churches Pisa Tower- 1178 AD The Holy Sepulchre- 1020 AD Chartres Cathedral- 1194 AD

  19. The Renaissance Church of Santa Maria Novella Florence, Italy --St. Peter’s Basilica Rome, Italy

  20. Industrial Architecture East Pool Mine Cornwall, England King Cross Station, London, England Exposed Metal Structures

  21. American Styles US Capitol- Washington D.C., 1793 Neoclassicism First Town-House Boston, 1658

  22. Elevators & Steel Midland Grand Hotel- London Second Leiter Building Chicago Flatiron Building- NYC

  23. Materials of Modernism Casa Mila by Antoni Gaudi The Steiner House by Adolf Loos “rationalist architecture” Church of Nortre-Dame du Raincyby AugustePerret and GustavePerret

  24. the Modern Movement Mies van derRohe- “Less is more” Walter Gropius- “form reflects function” German Pavilion- Barcelona, Spain Le Corbusier- the Domino House

  25. Internet Sources • Ubthenews.com • Hominides.com • Gettyimages.com • www2.stetson.edu • Illustrationartgallery.com • Imagesofanthropology.com • Odysseyadventures.ca • Sacredsites.com • Hanser.ceat@okstate.edu • Studyblue.com • Shefelmanbooks.blogspot.com