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ARCHITECTURE HISTORY. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD. INTRODUCTION. عمــارة فجر المسيحية Early Christian Architecture. INTRODUCTION. Architecture History. INTRODUCTION. The course aims to clear the relation between the architectural concept and the philosophy of design in different ages.

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architecture history

ARCHITECTURE HISTORY

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

introduction

INTRODUCTION

عمــارةفجر المسيحية

Early Christian Architecture

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

introduction1

INTRODUCTION

Architecture History

INTRODUCTION

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

course description
The course aims to clear the relation between the
  • architectural concept and the philosophy of design
  • in different ages.
  • clear the effects of physical, Social, religious,
  • historical and cultural contexts and Nature of
  • constructional possibilities on the different
  • architectural elements, Through a comparative
  • study of architecture for different old cultures.
  • Concentrate on analytical study and development
  • of architecture from the end of the Romans period
  • with an emphasis on selected architecture
  • examples.

Course Description:

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

course description1
Study the development in construction
  • technologies and space planning in Byzantine and
  • Medieval period (Romanesque and Gothic).
  • Evolution of Gothic forms - how it influenced later
  • development of modern architecture, European
  • renaissance and revival of classicism in architecture
  • (Classical Revival).
  • Ornate architecture of the Baroque and Rococo
  • periods in Europe.

Course Description:

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

course goals objectives
The course is designed to:
  • Introduce you to European architectural after
  • Romans period (.Byzantine ,Romanesque, Gothic
  • and renaissance architecture)
  • surveys the architecture of Europe Giving full
  • information's about the religious, historical and
  • cultural contexts and construction technologies and
  • space planning
  • Theoretical discussions upon the relevance and
  • proper use of their architecture in our today design
  • of buildings and sites planning

Course Goals & Objectives:

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

course topics
Introduction and Review of the maim stations of the Old Periods

COURSE TOPICS :

A . Early and Byzantine Architecture

  • 1. Early Christian Architecture
  • Influences Factors
  • Analysis of architecture Elements
  • Architectural Characteristics
  • 2. Byzantine Architecture
  • Influences Factors
  • Analysis of architecture Elements
  • Architectural Characteristics
  • Famous Building
    • Aya Sofia –Constantine
    • San Marks Church
  • Byzantine Art

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

b medieval architecture
1. Romanesque in Europe
  • Italian Romanesque
  • German Romanesque
  • France Romanesque
  • England Romanesque
  • 2. Gothic in Europe
    • Italian Gothic
    • France Gothic
    • England Gothic
    • Spanish Gothic
  • 3.Town Planning in the Middle Ages
  • Bondocia

B . Medieval Architecture

Mid-Term Exam

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

c classical revival architecture

C . Classical Revival Architecture

  • Renaissance Architecture
  • Influences Factors
  • Analysis of architecture Elements
  • Architectural Characteristics
  • Baroque and RococoArchitecture
  • Influences Factors
  • Analysis of architecture Elements
  • Architectural Characteristics

Final Exam

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

course grades

Course Grades

  • Mid-term Exam:Marks :30 %
  • Final Exam:Marks :40%
  • Assignments: Research Marks 20 % -
  • Due Time:2- Month
  • Quizzes & Attendance Marks : %10

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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Introduction
  • History is a study and analysis of the past actions. It’s apart of the previous facts that could be proofed
  • The majority of the historians knew that the present dimensions colour and influence the past actions
  • The translation of the past actions re-changed frequently according to the timescale
  • Translations and analysis based on document sources produced in or directly after the past occurrences is considered the valuable and the most important elements

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Through the history many civilizations were constructed and the people tends to build their private identification and style and if they didn't do that it comes to us through the time which we called the civilization history
  • We draw comparison between these civilizations to conclude the characteristics of their styles.
  • Studying the architectural styles starting from the creation period up to day should be connected to the current change especially the political, economical and social actions that affect the styles.

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Influences Factors:that affect the Architectural Style

1. Natural Factors :

Climite,Geography,and Geology of the area

2. Human Factors

Economical, Social, and Political conditions of the area

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Conclusion

the Architecture history considered apart of the art history which study the historical development of buildings design and city planning.

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Analysis of Architecture Styles Elements
  • Plans
  • Walls
  • Openings
  • Roofs
  • Columns
  • Moldings
  • Ornaments
  • Composition
  • Construction
  • Function
  • Treatment
  • Position

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العوامل المؤثرة في تكوين العمارة الرومانية

Influence FactorsRomans Architecture

There were six factors that influence the construction of architecture styles which are:

  • Historical
  • Geographical
  • Geological
  • Climatic
  • Religious
  • Social

Historical Factors

Natural Factors

Civil Factors

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A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus

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Geographical
  • Christianity had its birth in Beit Lahim (Judaea), an eastern province of the Roman Empire
  • directly it became a living organism , carried by S. Peter, S. Paul, and other missionaries to Rome, the centre of the World-Empire and the fountain-head of power and influence
  • In spite of opposition and persecution, the new religion took root and grew, till it was strong enough to become the recognized universal religion of the whole Roman Empire.
  • Early Christian architecture at Rome was influenced by, and was the logical outcome of, existing Roman art, and it was modified in other parts of the Empire according to the type already recognized as suitable for the geographical situation of those countries, such as Syria, Asia Minor, North Africa, and Egypt.

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  Early Christian areas

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map of Rome Geography.

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Basilicas

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Geological
  • Geological influences have acted indirectly on Early Christian
  • architecture, for the ruins of Roman buildings often provided the
  • quarry whence materials were obtained.
  • This influenced the style, both construction and decoration ; for
  • columns and other architectural features, as well as fine sculptures
  • and mosaics from older buildings, were worked into basilican
  • churches of the new faith.
  • Domes, vaults and walls were formed of concrete, and they were
  • faced with brick, stone, alabaster, porphyry and other marble while White and colored marbles were imported from- all parts of the Empire
  • Roman architecture spread over the world, and variously
  • influenced by the materials found in the widely differing localities
  • but concrete, which in conjunction with brick and stone casing was
  • the favorite uniformity material of Roman architecture style
  • Local geological influences in Syria, as at Baalbek, also in Egypt,
  • as at Philae, yield many quarries so that stone blocks took the placeof Roman concrete,

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Roman building materials
  • Marble from Rome and all over Italy
    • Travertine, a hard limestone from Tivoli
    • Tufa, a volcanic substance of which the hills of Rome are mainly composed ;
    • Peperino, a stone of volcanic origin from Mount Albano ;
    • Lava from volcanic eruptions
    • excellent sand and gravel.

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Limestone

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Limestone

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Sand Soil

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Sand Soil

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Sand Soil

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Sand Soil

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Sand Soil

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Sand Soil

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Sand Soil

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Sand Soil

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Sand Soil

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Sand Soil

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Sand Soil

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Sand Soil

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Travertine

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A cement building

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Mud bricks

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Fired bricks

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Marble

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Climate
  • The climate of Italy, the centre of building activity has variety of climatic conditions and has diversity of architectural features and treatment in the peninsula,
  • The differing climates of the various Roman provinces from England to North Africa, and from Syria to Spain, produced local modifications in details which leave little choice in general design
  • The climatic conditions of such Roman provinces as Egypt, Syria, and North Africa where Christianity was established were more or less varied, and naturally modified the style in those countries where the fiercer sun and hotter climate necessitated small windows and other Eastern features.
  • North Italy has the climate of the temperate region of Europe, Central Italy is genial and sunny, while the south is almost tropical.

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Religious
  • Christianity has striking rise, and rapidity diffused throughout the civilized world, and, in all subsequent ages,
  • Christianity has inspired greatest monuments building and the Christian communities established in Eastern Mediterranean, in Syria, Africa, Greece, and Italy, lead to many ruins of Early Christian basilican churches
  • the God preached by S. Paul was " not like unto gold or silver or stone graven by art and device of man," nor a God that dwelled " in temples made with hands " like those of the old Greeks and Romans which were built to shelter the statues of the gods.
  • The purpose of the Christian church was to shelter worshippers who met for prayer and praise to an unseen Deity, and, during the unsettled conditions at the beginning of Christianity, various places were adapted for this worship.
  • Thus the building of pagan temples ceased before any attempt was made to build Christian churches.

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Constantine decree 313 A.D., give Christianity equal rights with other religions, and in A.D. 323 he professed Christianity, which became the official religion of the Roman Empire, and began to build churches of a type suitable to their needs and ritual.
  • churchesFortified by its official position and freed from the need for unity within, which had been engendered by persecution.
  • So Early laid foundations of the temporal power of the Papacy, steadily increased, especially under Popes Hadrian I and Leo II.

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Social
  • Constantine changed the capital of the Empire from Rome to Byzantium in A.D. 324, when the old Roman political system came to an end
  • Besides the troubles caused by Julian the Apostate, Christianity suffered further disabilities during the unsettled conditions consequent upon the division of the Roman Empire, which first took place in A.D. 365 when Valentinian became Emperor of the West and his brother Valens of the East.
  • Theodosius the Great (A.D. 379-395) reunited, for a time, the Eastern and Western Empires,
  • again the seat of power was changed, and Theodoric the Goth reigned in Italy (A.D. 493–526) and , Byzantine art influenced Early Christian art by way of Ravenna, which rivalled Rome in importance and was the capital of the Gothic Dynasty A.Daa. 493–552 with the exception of a short period when it was subdued by Justinian (A.D. 537).

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Kings were elected for the separate states of Spain, Northern Africa, and Italy, where King Odoacer recognized the supremacy of the one Roman Emperor at Constantinople.
  • So it is clear that these many social changes and political disturbances could not fail to be reflected in the architecture of a period in which great formative forces were at work.

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Roman aqueduct

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Arena, Nimes

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Historical
  • The Early Christian period is generally taken as lasting from
  • Constantine to the death of Gregory the Great (A.D. 604), although in
  • Rome and many Italian cities it continued up to the tenth century. The
  • incursions of the Huns into Germany about A.D. 376 eventually brought
  • about invasions from the north into Italy.
  • in A.D. 410 Rome was sacked by the Goths. So many
  • conflicting forces were at work in Europe which arrested during this
  • period till A.D. 451, when the defeat of Attila, King of the Huns, by
  • Chalons who aided in the consolidation of Christianity in Europe.
  • In A.D. 568 the Lombards penetrated into Italy and held the
  • northern part for 200 years. Then in A.D. 800 Charlemagne was
  • crowned by the Pope in Rome, and from this date the Empire was
  • styled the Holy Roman Empire, a title retained till A.D. 1800. Under
  • Pope Gregory the Great (A.D. 590–604)

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Early Christian architecture, the latest phase of Roman art, gradually
  • fell into disuse, and for the next two centuries architectural
  • development was practically at a standstill in Europe ; and though
  • the influence of Byzantium asserted itself, old Roman traditions were
  • in abeyance till the time when Romanesque architecture was
  • gradually evolved.

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Early Christians Architecture

Characters

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Early Christians Architecture Comparative Analysis

A. Plans

The Early Christians followed the basilican model for their new churches and may also have used old Roman halls, baths, dwelling-houses, and even pagan temples as places of worship.

The campanile or bell-tower dates from this period, is a prototype of Mediaeval towers.

An isolated circular baptistery was generally attached to the chief basilican church or cathedral of a city.

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The vestibule    The Lokva or Pond2 The portal of the basilica3-4 The naves5 The shrine6 The triforium7 The transept8 The pastophorium9 The baptistery    The frescoes10 The font11 The proaulion12 The hall of katekumens13 The Capitulum14 The bath15 The graves    The bottom  

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ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

map of Rome reveals an interesting contrast of Christian versus non-Christian monuments

slide62
Rotunda of the Greek: Resurrection was built to be where Christ was buried:

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Europos Christian house

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death and resurrection symbolism of the sacrament of Baptism explains the connection

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B. Walls

These were still constructed according to Roman methods of using rubble or concrete, faced with plaster, brick, or stone Mosaic

decoration was added internally and sometimes also externally on west facades though little regard was paid to external architectural effect

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C. Openings

Arcades, doors, and windows were either spanned by a semicircular arch which, in nave arcades, often rested directly on the capitals without any entablatures or were spanned by a lintel, as in the doorway of the Tomb of Theodoric, Ravenna

The marble doors at Cividale show the ornate character sometimes attempted

Window openings, filled in with slabs of marble or alabaster, were small

windows of the nave were in the walls above the aisle roofs

This system was developed in the wonderful clear-stories of Gothic architecture

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Europos Christian house

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D. Roofs

Timber roofs covered the central nave, and only simple forms of construction, such as king and queen post trusses, were employed.

It is believed that the decoration of the visible framework was of later date, as at S. Miniato, Florence

The narrower side aisles were occasionally vaulted and the apse was usually domed and lined with beautiful glass mosaics, which formed a fitting background to the sanctuary

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imperial audience hall

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E. Columns

These differ both in design and size, as they were often taken from earlier Roman buildings, which had either fallen into ruin or been purposely destroyed

It was natural that early Christian builders should use materials and ornament of the pagan Romans, and, as these belonged to the better period of Roman art, a grand effect was obtained though the details of the design were not necessarily homogeneous.

Middleton states that all the fine marble columns, whether Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian, in the churches of Rome were taken from ancient Roman buildings, except those in S. Paolo fuori le Mura.

The carved capitals are governed by Roman pagan precedent and sometimes by that of Byzantine and in both the acanthus leaf forms an important part

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The church of Santa Costanza in Rome was a mausoleum built for Constantine's daughter

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F. Mouldings

These are coarse variations of old Roman types, and the carving, though rich in general effect, is crude ; for the technique of the craftsman had gradually declined during this period

Enrichments were incised on mouldings in low relief, and the acanthus ornament, although still copied from the antique, became more conventional in form.

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Old St. Peter's church, was extremely influential in later medieval architecture

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G. Ornament

The introduction of colour gave richness and glimmering to interiors.

The domed apses mosaics generally represented Christ surrounded by apostles and saints

The " arch of triumph," separating the nave from the bema, was ornamented with appropriate subjects ; long friezes of figures line the wall above nave arcades and the wall spaces between the clear-story windows often had mosaics illustrating Christian history or doctrine.

The figures are treated in strong colours on a gold back-ground in a bold and simple design fitting well the position they occupy, characterizes the groups.

The method of execution is coarse and bold, and no attempt was made at neatness

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The colored pavements were largely formed of slices from old Roman porphyry or marble columns

The glass mosaics used for the High Altar and screens

The Angel ملاكof S. Matthew, the Lion اسدof S. Mark, the Ox ثورof S. Luke, and the Eagle نسرof S. John, as well as the dove حمامة , peacock طاووس, anchorمرساة, olive branch, and monogram مؤشر الصليب of Christ are woven into the scheme of things.

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Early Christians Architecture Character
  • Early Christians, as Roman craftsmen, continued old Roman traditions, utilize the materials from Roman temples which had become useless.
  • Churches, modelled on Roman basilicas, they used old columns which by various devices were brought to a uniform height
  • Basilican churches had either closely spaced columns carrying the entablature or more widely spaced columns carrying semicircular arches
  • Early Christian buildings hardly have the architectural value of a style produced by the solution of constructive problems

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Forum of Juluis Caesar

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Semi-circle Arches Church

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Semi-circle Arches Church

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Semi-circle Arches Church

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The High Altar of Siena Cathedral, Italy, polychrome marble with bronze ciborium and candelabra.

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   Trajan Colomn

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Typical Early Christian style is the basilican church with three or five aisles, covered by a simple timber roof, and is as opposed to the vaulted Byzantine church with its central circular dome placed over a square by means of pendentives and surrounded by smaller domes
  • basilican churches is rendered impressive and dignified by the long perspective of oft-repeated columns which carry the eye along to the sanctuary ; a treatment which, combined with the comparatively low height of interiors, makes these churches appear longer than they really are, as is seen in S. Paolo fuori le Mura and S. Maria Maggiore
  • An " arch of triumph " gave entrance to the sanctuary with the High Altar in the centre standing free under its baldachino upheld by marble columns
  • The vista was rounded off by an apse lined with marble slabs and crowned with a semi-dome en-crusted with glittering golden mosaics in which Christ appears surrounded by prophets, saints, and martyrs

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Reenacting the Stations of the Cross in Jerusalem on the Via Dolorosa from the Lions' Gate to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

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Church of the Holy Sepulchre (1885). Other than some restoration work, it appears essentially the same today.

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The Edicule of the Holy Sepulchre (The Tomb of Christ) with the dome of the rotunda visible above.

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Floor plan of the church.

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Stone of the Anointing.

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Tomb of Jesus

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Jaffa Gate at dusk. The actual gate is on the left of the photo, with the open space the breach that is now used for vehicular traffic

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The Tomb of Jesus Christ

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Arc de Triomphe at night

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Roman Arch

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There was a pre-Napoleonic (1758) proposal by Charles Ribart for an elephant-shaped building on the location of the current arch.

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Basilicas

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Pantheon

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Pantheon

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The Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore
  • The Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore ("St. Mary Major") was built by Pope Sixtus III in 432-440 A.D. on the highest point of the Cispian Hill.
  • The church reflects the doctrine that Mary was the Mother of God. The site was occupied by an earlier Roman structure that underwent several building phases, as has been determined by various archaeological excavations.
  • Among the finds is a famous painted calendar dating from the late fourth century A.D. No evidence confirm that there was an earlier Christian basilica on this site erected in the fourth century A.D.
  • In 1614, in the piazza before the church Pope Paul V Erected a colossal Corinthian column taken from the Basilica of Maxentius; it supports a bronze statue of the Virgin Mary.
  • A pendant to this is the 14.8 meter obelisk behind the apse erected in 1587 by Sixtus V and was taken from the Mausoleum of Augustus.

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The Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore
  • The basilica itself was restored and extended by various popes, commissioned Ferdinando Fuga to build the present facade and to modify the interior. Among Fuga's most important changes was the blocking of every other window in the nave.
  • The 75 meter Romanesque bell tower next to the basilica was begun in 1375-1376 and finished in the middle of the next century.
  • The building is 279 feet long and has a basilica plan with a nave, two side aisles, and an apse.
  • The 36 columns of Hymettian marble and 4 of granite all have Ionic columns over which is an architrave decorated with mosaics.
  • The fifth-century columns and capitals (including some spolia) were recut and standardized by Fuga. Originally the sanctuary was probably preceded by an atrium of uncertain design and dimensions .

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The Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore
  • The fifth-century half-dome and de- ambulatory were replaced with the current apse and the mosaic were added showing the Coronation of Mary. The ceiling of the nave was coffered and, according to tradition, was gilded with the first gold brought back from donation
  • In the mid-twelfth century the present pavement was added. Along both side aisles, many chapels were added in later times, substantially changing the original appearance of the church.
  • The most notable of these are the Sistine Chapel, or Chapel of the Holy Sacrament designed by Domenico Fontana in 1584-1587 and the Borghese Chapel built by Pope Paul V in 1605-1611

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Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore- the largest church in Rome for Blessed Virgin Mary

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Interior of the Church

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Original plan of S. Maria Maggiore superimposed over current plan.

A= hypothetical atrium

B= nave

C=deambulatory.

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.

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Current plan.

1=Sacristy

2=Baptistery

3=Chapel of Ss. Michele e Pietro in Vincoli

4=Chapel of the Relics; 5=Sacristy

6=Sistine Chapel, or Chapel of the Holy Sacrament;

7=Cesi Chapel

8=Sforza Chapel; 9=Borghese Chapel, or Pauline Chapel

10=apse of Nicholas IV (1288-1294

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Byzantine Architecture Character
  • The development of the dome to cover circular, polygonal, and square plans for churches, tombs, and baptisteries
  • The practice of placing many domes over one building is in strong contrast to the Romanesque system of vaulted roofs
  • The basilican type, inherited from pagan Rome, is characteristic of the former, and the domed type, introduced from the East, of the latter
  • The system of construction in concrete and brickwork introduced by the Romans was adopted by the Byzantines
  • Brickwork, moreover, lent itself externally to decorative caprices in patterns and banding, and internally it was suitable for covering with marble, mosaic, and fresco decoration
  • Early Christian buildings hardly have the architectural value of a style produced by the solution of constructive problems

ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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