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  1. ARCHITECTURE HISTORY ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  2. العمــارةالبيزنطية Byzantine Architecture INTRODUCTION ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  3. BYZANTINE Architecture - Influences ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  4. Analysis of Architecture Styles Elements • Plans • Walls • Openings • Roofs • Columns • Moldings • Ornaments • Composition • Construction • Function • Treatment • Position ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  5. العوامل المؤثرة في تكوين العمارة البيزنطية Influence FactorsByzantine Architecture There were six factors that influence the construction of architecture styles which are: • Historical • Geographical • Geological • Climatic • Religious • Social Historical Factors Natural Factors Civil Factors ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  6. Geographical • Byzantium (Constantinople) or " New capital of Roman in A.D. 330 stands on seven hills, at the junction of the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmora where a narrow strip connect Europe and Asia • It has central position for Roman Empire at the intersection of two highways of commerce, the water highway between the Black Sea and Mediterranean, and the trade route between Europe and Asia • The large, natural harbour of the Golden Horn possesses unusual advantages for commerce ; for it is four miles in length, unaffected by tides, and of sufficient depth to render its quays accessible to ships of deep draught. • Byzantine art pervaded all parts of the Eastern Roman Empire and was carried by traders to Greece, Russia, Asia Minor, North Africa, and even farther west, to Venice, Ravenna, and it had considerable influence on the architecture of these districts. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  12. Hagia Sophia - Constantinople ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  13. Geological • Constantine possessed no good building stone, and local Materials such as clay for bricks and rubble for concrete were employed. • Other materials had to be imported : marble was brought from the quarries in the islands and along the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean. • Byzantine architecture was further considerably influenced by the multitude of monolithic columns of such sizes as were obtainable from the different quarries. These were even introduced into the underground water storage of this Imperial city ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  14. Roman building materials • Marble from Rome and all over Italy • Travertine, a hard limestone from Tivoli • Tufa, a volcanic substance of which the hills of Rome are mainly composed ; • Peperino, a stone of volcanic origin from Mount Albano ; • Lava from volcanic eruptions • excellent sand and gravel. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  15. Limestone ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  16. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  17. Rock Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  18. Valleys Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  19. Limestone Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  20. A cement building ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  21. Mud bricks ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  22. Fired bricks ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  23. Marble ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  24. Climate • The Romans adapted their methods of building to the Eastern climate of their new capital and to those conditions of life which had there already created traditional forms in art : • thus flat roofs for summer resort are combined with oriental domes, and these, with small windows often high up in otherwise unbroken walls, form the chief features of the style, and sheltering arcades surrounded the open courts. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  25. Stavronikita Monastery - Mount Athos (Macedonia) ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  26. Religious • Based on Christianity the chief buildings erected in Byzantium, the new capital, were churches which influence by their environment and so the basilican type was merged in the domical type. • The political division between East and West lead to division of Churches, The Western Church held that the Spirit proceeded from the Father and Son, while the Eastern Church maintained that the Spirit proceeded from the Father only. • The Eastern and Western Churches had been divided by the " Iconoclastics movement," according to the decree of Leo III (A.D. 717-741), who, fearing that paganism would be fostered by the use of sculpture, proscribed all representations of human or animal forms. • Greek artists left to Italy, which resulted in the admission of painted figures in the decoration of Eastern churches, ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  27. Differences in ritual have affected Byzantine church architecture where it remains the official style of the Greek or Orthodox Church of eastern Europe • The architecture became stereotyped in sharp contrast with the changes which characterize the developments of Mediaeval architecture to suit it to the varying requirements of church economy and ritual in western Europe. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  28. Historical and Social • Constantine transplanting his capital from Rome to Byzantium (A.D. 324) due to political value of its central position in the Empire. Thus civil government, military head-quarters, and the Imperial court were all established in Byzantine • Byzantine population described as profligateمهتك اخلاقيا , lazyكسول, and viciousشرير. • change of capital introduced Eastern methods oflife and corrupt conditions into the Roman social economy, and contributed to the growth of luxuryترف and viceرذيله which precipitated the fall of the Roman Empire. • Byzantium was an old Greek city, and so the new Imperial buildings were executed by Greek craftsmen and the new city was laid out on Roman lines, so there was a central dividing street running through subsequence of six forums passing S. Sophia, the Christendom glory, Imperial palace, senate house, and law courts. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  29. The Constantine Forum was the centre of commercial life, while, in the Hippodrome for the chariot races, as gladiatorial combat the center of social life of New Rome as the Colosseum in Old Rome. • The Romans paid the same attention to the water supply of their new as of their old capital, for water was brought by aqueducts and stored in enormous underground cisterns with roofs upheld by countless columns. • the city of Constantine was extended, the Great Wall with its famous military gates and towers was built by Theodosius II (A.D. 413) to set a circle of land and water fortifications against the formidable attacks of Huns and Goths. • After Constantine, and Theodosius, Justinian (A.D. 527–565) the great patron of architecture, and responsible not only for the rebuilding of S. Sophia, but also for many other churches in the city and in Syria and Palestine. • In spite of its commercial and industrial activity, the Byzantine Empire was doomed to destruction, immorality, and luxury, and the final crash ended the capital to the rule of Ottoman Mohammed Al-fateh in A.D. 1453. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  30. Walls - Constantinople ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  34. Roman aqueduct ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  35. Arena, Nimes ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  36. Byzantine Architecture Comparative Analysis ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  37. Byzantine Architecture Comparative Analysis • A. Plans • The churches plan distinguished by a central space, covered with a dome on pendentives • Short arms on each side form a Greek cross, and the filling in of the angles brings the plan nearly to a square • Opposite the entrance was the apse for the altar in the sanctuary, which was screened off by the " Iconostasis " with its three doors, and there were also lateral ritual chapels. • The narthex formed an entrance vestibule and was frequently crowned with domes. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  38. The essential difference in plan between a Byzantine and an Early Christian church may be summed up as follows : • Byzantine churches, unlike Early Christian churches had no bell-towers. • The Byzantine church, because of the grouping of subsidiary domes round a central dome,- gives a vertical impression ; for the eye is gradually drawn upwards towards the central culminating dome . The Early Christian church, because of the vista of columns, entablatures, and simple timber roof, gives a horizontal impression ; for the eye is led along these horizontal lines to the apsidal sanctuary which is the important feature. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  39. Domical form -Hagia Sophia - Constantinople ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  40. The 6th-century church of Hagia Irene in Constantinople is a superb sample of the early Byzantine architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  41. Basilica form ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  42. Basilica form ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  43. Byzantine plans ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  44. المساقط الأفقية للكنائس Byzantine plans ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  45. المساقط الأفقية للكنائس Byzantine plans ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  46. المساقط الأفقية للكنائس Byzantine plans ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  47. Apse and sanctuary ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  48. Chora Monastery - Constantinople ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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