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  3. Course Description: • Evolution of architecture during prehistoric periods. • Analytical history of Ancient Architecture (Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Persian, Canaanite, Phoenician, and Hittite) in Ancient Middle East. • Study of the civilizations and architecture of classical periods: Greek (preceded by Aegean), Roman (preceded by Etruscan). • Theoretical discussions upon the relevance and proper use of Ancient and Classical architecture in the design of buildings and sites today. • A brief review of architecture in the Far East. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  4. Course Goals & Objectives: • Study Architectural history and properties of buildings for ancient civilizations as Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Persian, Canaanite, Phoenician and Hittite. And for classical periods as Greek, and Roman • Give You chance in comparing between architectural fundamentals & buildings in different ancient civilization.. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  5. Egyptian Architecture • Introduction • Egypt and Ancient Near East • Prehistoric Periods • Influences Factors • Analysis of architecture Elements • Architectural Characteristics • Egyptian Old Kingdoms • Pyramids and attendant buildings • Egyptian Middle and Modern Kingdoms • Great Temples (Al-Oqsor and Al-Karnak Temples) COURSE TOPICS : ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  6. NearEast Periods • Near East Periods • Babylonian & Assyrian & Persian Periods • Ziggurats • Cities Planning • Palace of Sargon • Ishtar Gate • Babel Gardens Mid-TermExam ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  7. Greek Architecture • Greek Architecture • Influences Factors • Analysis of architecture Elements • Architectural Characteristics • General Characteristics of Greek Style • Doric Order • Ionic Order • Corinthian Order • Greek Temples-Parthenon ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  8. Romans Architecture • General Characteristics of Roman style • Doric Order • Ionic Order • Corinthian Order • Tuscan • composite • Romans Temples • Romans Pathes • Romans Domes • Colosseum Final Exam ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  9. Course Grades • Mid-term Exam:Marks :30 % • Final Exam:Marks :40% • Assignments: Research Marks 20 % - • Due Time:1- Month • Quizzes & Attendance Marks : %10 ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  10. Introduction • History is a study and analysis of the past actions. It’s apart of the previous facts that could be proofed • The majority of the historians knew that the present dimensions colour and influence the past actions • The translation of the past actions re-changed frequently according to the timescale • Translations and analysis based on document sources produced in or directly after the past occurrences is considered the valuable and the most important elements ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  11. Through the history many civilizations were constructed and the people tends to build their private identification and style and if they didn't do that it comes to us through the time which we called the civilization history • We draw comparison between these civilizations to conclude the characteristics of their styles. • Studying the architectural styles starting from the creation period up to day should be connected to the current change especially the political, economical and social actions that affect the styles. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  12. Influences Factors:that affect the Architectural Style 1. Natural Factors : Climite,Geography,and Geology of the area 2. Human Factors Economical, Social, and Political conditions of the area ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  13. Architecture history is a type of the History and it is affected by probabilities and limitations of the study and comparison For Example : in 19th century Architecture studied from the composition point view and the construction style but afterward with the creation of architecture expresions it studied the interaction of the natural and humans factors of the architecture style ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  14. Conclusion the Architecture history considered apart of the art history which study the historical development of buildings design and city planning. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  15. Ancient and Medieval Architecture Introduction • Architecture is the art of building. • Sometimes people build small buildings like sheds or their ownhouses. • Other times people build very large buildings. These are sometimes temples or churches orMosques for theGod, or tombs for important kings or heroes, or palaces for kings and queens, or public buildings likeTheatersor sports stadiums. • The first houses were built around 7000BCinWest Asia, but the first big buildings were built much later, around 3000BC. InWest Asiathe first big buildings were theZiggurats, and in Africa, in Egyptِِِ they were the Pyramids. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  16. Ancient and Medieval Architecture • A little later on, about 1800BC,both the Egyptians and the Babyloniansbegan to build big royal palaces,richly decorated.  • Soon the people of Crete and Greece began to imitate these palacesfor their own kings and queens. • In Egypt, the Pharaohs also built big temples for their gods. • Around 1000 BC a Dark Age keptpeople from building for a while, because they were too poor and worried, and when the Dark Ages ended, there were no more kings in Greece,and so no more palaces. • The Greeks built a lot of templesfor their gods at this time, especially the famous Parthenon. But in West Asia the Assyrians, the Neo-Babylonians and the Persians all built palaces for their kings ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  17. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  18. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  19. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  20. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  21. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  22. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  23. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  24. المسجد الاقصى Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  25. Ancient and Medieval Architecture • Egyptians was not rich enough any more for big buildings. • Because Alexander the Greatconquered Egypt and West Asia in 331 BC, Greek Architecturespread all over his empire, and even beyond it into India. Theaters and gymnasia, as well as temples, were built wherever Alexander had fought. • When the Romans conquered their own Empire,they also built Roman buildings all over it. The Romans brought some new ideas to architecture: they built in brick and concrete, and they use the arch, the barrel vaults, and the domes.They built theaters andamphitheaters, temples, palaces, basilicas, bath buildings, apartment blocks, restaurants and housesall over, from England to Iraq. They used apses in the ends of their buildings. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  26. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  27. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  28. Ancient and Medieval Architecture • The conversionof the Empire to Christianityabout 350-400ADalso inspired the Romans to build a lot of churches. It was also about this time that people in India began to build Hindutemples, many of them cut out of the living rock • With the fall of Rome about 450 ADarchitecture also collapsed for a while, and only small churches were built in Europe • In the Islamic empire, however, many beautiful Mosques were built from Spain to India, and also many big palaces. Hindu temples also continued to be built. • By the time of800ADbig buildings were going up again in Europe, like Charlemagne's own Palaces. Soon big ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  29. Ancient and Medieval Architecture • Byzantine and Romanesque churches were built all over England and France and Italy. Then, beginning around 800-1100 AD, the greatGothic cathedralswere built in Christian Europe, while mosques continued to be built inWest Asia,Africa,India, and Spain. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  30. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  31. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  32. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  33. Ancient and Medieval Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  34. Ancient Houses • In the earliest times, of course, people lived without any kind of shelter, • or in tents, • or in caves • or in Huts. • Some people, like thenomadicBedouin, still do live in tents. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  35. Ancient Houses This is an example of a cave in Greece where people lived in the early Neolithic period, before they began building houses in Greece; about 7000-6000 BC. Franchthi Cave, Greece (Cave) ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  36. Ancient Houses Modern tent in Afghanistan, near Heart (Tent) ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  37. Ancient Houses (Tent) ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  38. Ancient Houses Neolithic ruined house in Iraq)Huts) ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  39. Ancient Houses By the New Stone Age, or theNeolithicsome people had started building houses for themselves (although a lot of other people continued to live in caves or tents). People began the Neolithic at different times in different places, so that people began to build houses inEgypt andWest Asia probably about 10,000BC and inGreece about 6000BCwhile they didn't start to build houses in England until about 3000BC. The type of these house depended a lot on where you lived. Innorthern Europe and innorthern China where it was cold in the winter, people mostly built what we call "hearth houses," which were huts with one square or round room, and a fire on a stone hearth in the middle, with the smoke going out through the thatched or shingled roof, which slanted so the rain and snow would run off. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  40. Ancient Houses "hearth houses," ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  41. Ancient Houses Often theanimals were kept right in the room with the people, for warmth. Sometimes the huts were bigger, and had two rooms, one for the people and the other for the animals. (though even so some of the animals, like dogs and cats, probably slept with the people, and some of the people, likeslavesprobably slept with the animals). Chimneys were not yet invented. InEgypt andWest Asia and insouthern China on the other hand, it was pretty much hot all the time, and wood was very scarce. People there mostly built houses ofmud-brickand thehouseswere mostly a wall around an open courtyard, with some small rooms built around the edges of the courtyard to keep stuff in and to go into when it rained .These are called "courtyard houses." Here theanimals would be kept in the courtyards, which often had a well or a cistern in the middle to collect water. The roofs were usually flat, so people could sleep on them and keep cool ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  42. Ancient Houses "courtyard houses." ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  43. Ancient Houses “Huts houses." ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  44. Ancient Houses “Huts houses." ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  45. Ancient Houses “Huts houses." ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  46. Ancient Houses “Huts houses." ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  47. Ancient Houses Many people lived in houses just like one of these all the way through themedieval periodBut by about 3000 BC some people in theEastern Mediterranean andWest Asia were richer than others, and began to build better houses to show it. In Ur and Uruk, there are palaces for the kings: these are mostly bigger versions of courtyard houses, with many courtyards and rooms all around each courtyard. InGreecepeople began to build "megaron" houses, with one or two rooms and pillars in front making a porch; sometimes in back too. These bigger houses also have nice brick floors, and built-in benches and cupboards, and painted walls, and tiled roofs. But not very many people had them. Most people still lived in the same old kinds of houses. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  48. Ancient Houses By about fifteen hundred years later, around 1500BCmany city-dwellers inEgypt andWestern Asia had these nicer courtyard houses. In Crete people built "agglutinative" houses (glued-together), with a lot of small rooms crowded together around courtyards. InChina, we find rich people living inbigger houses with pillars and tiled roofs beginning in theChou Dynasty about 1000 BC. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  49. Ancient Houses "megaron" houses ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  50. Chou Dynasty ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD