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The Counter Reformation – the Thirty Years War. The Age of the Split of Western Christianity. (1054: Great Schism, Roman Catholic vs. Byzantine Orthodox) (15th century: Jan Hus, Bohemia) 1517-1648: split of western Christianity 1517-1555/63: Reformation 1545-1563: „Catholic Reformation“

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The Counter Reformation – the Thirty Years War


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    1. The Counter Reformation –the Thirty Years War

    2. The Age of the Split of Western Christianity • (1054: Great Schism, Roman Catholic vs. Byzantine Orthodox) • (15th century: Jan Hus, Bohemia) • 1517-1648: split of western Christianity • 1517-1555/63: Reformation • 1545-1563: „Catholic Reformation“ • 1563-1618: Counter Reformation • 1618-1648: 30 Years War

    3. Outcomes • 1648: Peace of Westphalia • Establishment of new order in Europe: principle of state souvereignty • Re-confirmation of Religious Peace of Augsburg, now including Calvinists • Territorial states based on secularity • Religious settlement of lesser importance • Holy Roman Empire practically becomes federation of independent states

    4. Developments Reformation as starting point, impact on imperial politics (Imperial Diets, peasant war, Smalkaldic War, Ottoman threat)

    5. The Reformation

    6. The Counter Reformation/Catholic Renewal • Counterreformation as reaction to Reformation • Initially: movement for renewal of Catholic church, since late 15th century, backward looking • Emerges mainly in countries not affected by Reformation (Spain, Italy) • Aims: caritas, education, fighting of heresies • Organisation: new monasterial orders (Theatines, Chapucines, Jesuits)

    7. The Tridentine Reforms/„Tridentinum“ • Initiated by Pope Paul III.: Council of Trent • Three phases: 1545-47, 1551-52, 1561-63 • Third decisive phase under Pius IV • Re-confirmation of traditional elements of Catholicism (sacraments, priesthood, justification), reformatory decisions mainly concerning clergy

    8. The „actual“ Counter Reformation • Focused on Germany • Catholic restauration in southern Germany (Bavaria, Austria) • Supported by Jesuits • Violations of Augsburg peace lead to establishment of „Protestant Union“ (1607) • Reaction: Catholic League (1608) • Clarification of the fronts for upcoming 30 Years War

    9. Territories of the Counter Reformation

    10. The Thirty Years War • 1618: Bohemian nobility protests against counter reformist policy of Habsburg King Matthias, „Defenestration“ of Prague • Bohemian phase (1618-23): Habsburg & Bavaria against Bohemian army under count Thun • 1620: Battle of the White Mountain, Bohemia incorporated into Austria

    11. The Bohemian Phase

    12. The Danish Phase • 1623-29 • Intervention by King Christian IV. of Denmark to support Protestants & expand in northern Germany • Defeated by Habsburg armies under commanders Tilly and Wallenstein • Restituion Edict by Emperor Ferdinand II.

    13. The Danish Phase

    14. The Swedish Phase • 1630-35 • Intervention by King Gustav Adolph II. of Sweden as reaction to Restitution Edict • Takes western Pomerania

    15. The French Phase • 1635-48 • Intervention by French chancellor, Cardinal Richelieu • Aim: break Habsburg power • Escalation to European war

    16. The Swedish and the French Phases

    17. The Peace of Westphalia