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The Counter-Reformation World History - Libertyville HS
Three Areas of Reform • Doctrine – a set of accepted beliefs of the Catholic faith • Reforms of the Popes • New religious order established
Doctrinal Changes • Council of Trent (1545) • Bishops, cardinals reviewed Catholic doctrine • Rejected any compromise with Protestant reformers • Decisions of Council of Trent • Church interpretation of Bible is final • Need faith AND good works for salvation (traditional interp.) • Bible and Church traditions are of equal authority • Indulgences are ok BUT selling false ones are banned • Seminaries were established, to educate and train new priests
Reform Minded Popes • Paul III (r. 1534-1549) • Limited indulgences • Approved Jesuit order • Paul IV (r. 1555-1559) • “Index of Forbidden Books” – burned books that were considered “dangerous” to Catholics • Mostly made up of protestant texts • Re-constituted Inquisition as anti-Protestant tool
Religious Order: Jesuits • “Society of Jesus” • Founder = Ignatius of Loyola (Spanish – 1491-1556) • Founded Society in 1522 • Wrote Spiritual Exercise: day by day plan of meditation, prayer, study • Very popular amongst regular Catholics • 1540 – Pope made Jesuits an official religious order
Jesuit Order • Three primary activities • Founded schools in Europe to educate Catholics • Jesuit-educated children of rulers = loyal Catholic future ruler • Schools taught commoners, too • Missionary work around world, converting non-Catholics • Stopping the spread of Protestantism in Europe (“Soldiers of Christ”)
Successes of Jesuits • Rigorously trained and educated members became confessors, teachers to monarchs and princes • Were examples to the rest of the Catholic world as the best of the Catholic Church • Helped stop the spread of Protestantism in Germany, Poland, Hungary , France • Missionary work in New World, Asia converted millions (today, very Catholic areas)