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The Skeleton. Bone Facts. Living tissue (hard form of connective tissue) Chief supporting tissue of body 206 bones Babies are born with 270 soft bones 64 of those bones eventually fuse together to make the 206 hard permanent bones that an adult has.

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The Skeleton

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bone facts
Bone Facts
  • Living tissue (hard form of connective tissue)
  • Chief supporting tissue of body
  • 206 bones
  • Babies are born with 270 soft bones
  • 64 of those bones eventually fuse together to make the 206 hard permanent bones that an adult has

Male bones tend to be larger and heavier than females

  • Females pelvic cavity is wider to accommodate childbirth
functions of the skeleton
Functions of the Skeleton
  • Aid in movement of the body
    • moveable levers which muscles pull to move different parts of the body
  • To support and protect internal body organs
  • To produce red and white blood cells
    • 2.6 million red blood cells produced each second
    • Replace those worn out and destroyed by the liver
  • To provide a storehouse for minerals
    • Calcium and phosphorous
  • Protective and supportive framework for attached muscles and soft tissues that underlie it
  • Consist of microscopic cells called osteocytes
  • Organic Part
    • Protein called bone collagen – fibrous material
    • Between fibers is jellylike material
  • Inorganic Part
    • Mineral salts
    • Give bones its hardness and durability
  • When pressure is applied to a bone:
    • Flexible organic material prevents bone damage
    • Mineral elements resist crushing under pressure
bone structure
Bone Structure
  • Periosteum: outside of the bone
    • Tough fibrous tissue that contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves
    • Necessary for bone growth, repair, and nutrition
  • Diaphysis
    • Compact bone
  • Epiphysis
    • End of the diaphysis
    • Contain red marrow where some red blood cells and some white blood cells are made

Articular cartilage

    • Covers epiphysis
    • Acts as a shock absorber between two bones at a joint.
  • Endosteum
    • Lining of the marrow canal to keep the cavity intact
  • Medullary canal (cavity)
    • Filled with yellow bone marrow

Yellow bone marrow

    • Mostly fat cells, blood vessels, and white blood cells
    • Functions as a fat storage center
  • Spongy bone
    • where less strength is needed in the bone
    • Found near the epiphyseal line (growth plate)
bone formation
Bone Formation
  • Embryonic skeleton consists of collagenous protein fibers
  • During development the body is made up of mostly hyaline cartilage
  • During the 8th week, ossification beings and bone starts to replace cartilage
  • As they ossify they become hard and more capable of bearing weight
bone growth
Bone Growth
  • Bones grow in length and ossify from the center of the diaphysis towards the epiphyses
  • Osteoblasts deposit new bone to the outer surface which increases the circumference
  • Osteoclasts secrete enzymes that digest bony material creating the medullary canal

The length of the bone shaft continues to grow until the growth plates are closed

  • Bone growth ends for females around 18
  • Bone growth ends for males around 20-21
  • New bone growth can occur in a fractured bone at any time
parts of the skeleton
Parts of the Skeleton
  • Axial Skeleton
    • 80 bones
    • Skull, spine, ribs, and sternum
appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Made up of the shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, and limbs
  • 126 bones
  • 64 bones in the shoulders and upper limbs
  • 62 bones in the pelvis and lower limbs
types of bone
Types of Bone
  • Flat
    • Thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved
    • Serve protective function
    • Scapula, sternum, ribs, most bones of skull
  • Irregular
    • Have weird shapes that do not fit other 3 classes
    • Vertebrae, hip, 2 skull bones (sphenoid, ethmoid bones)


    • Cube-like in shape
    • Found in carpals (wrist) and tarsals (ankle)
  • Long
    • Much longer than they are wide
    • All bones of limbs (except patella, carpals, tarsals)
    • Consists of shaft plus 2 expanded ends


  • Sternum
  • Ribs
upper extremity
Upper Extremity
  • Clavicle
  • Scapula
  • Sternum
  • Ribs
  • Humerus
  • Radius
  • Ulna
  • Carpals
  • Metacarpals
  • Phalanges
spine pelvis
  • Pelvis
  • Sacrum
  • Pubic Bone/
  • Pubis