Bullying Prevention & Intervention:  What we Know and What we Can Do
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Bullying Prevention & Intervention: What we Know and What we Can Do Marlene Snyder, PhD Director of Development - OBPP Clemson University nobully@clemson.edu 864-710-4562 Whitefish, MT 406-862-8971. Why is it important to address bullying in schools?. For students & their futures

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Why is it important to address bullying in schools

Bullying Prevention & Intervention: What we Know and What we Can DoMarlene Snyder, PhD Director of Development - OBPP Clemson Universitynobully@clemson.edu864-710-4562Whitefish, MT 406-862-8971

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Why is it important to address bullying in schools
Why is it important to we Can Doaddress bullying in schools?

For students & their futures

For a healthy school climate

For the larger community

For purposes of risk management for schools

It’s a wise investment

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

What Is Your School Doing To Address Bullying Behaviors? we Can Do

  • Awareness-raising efforts

  • Developing policy, reporting, tracking

  • Zero tolerance (student exclusion)

  • Social skills training for victims of bullying

  • Individual & group treatment for children who bully/children who are bullied

  • Mediation, conflict resolution programs

  • Curricular approaches to bullying prevention

  • Comprehensive approaches

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010

3


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

Olweus Definition of Bullying: we Can Do

“Bullying is when someone repeatedly and on purpose says or does mean or hurtful things to another person who has a hard time defending himself or herself.”

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Three key components of bullying behavior
Three Key Components of Bullying Behavior we Can Do

Involves an aggressive behavior

Typically involves a pattern of behavior repeated over time

Imbalance of power or strength

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Bullying peer abuse
BULLYING = PEER ABUSE we Can Do

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

Children’s Fears About Bullying we Can Do

  • 2003 Harris poll of 2,279 girls ages 8-17 years

  • The biggest fear cited was being teased or made fun of (41% of tweens)

    • 2x as often as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, war

    • 15x as often as dying/death of loved one

    • 30x as often as school grades

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010

7


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

The Bullying Circle we Can Do

G

Starts the bullying ;takes active part

A

Student who Bullies

Defender

Bullied

Student

Dislikes the bullying, helps or tries to help the victim

Take active

part, but do not start the bullying

B

H

Followers

The one exposed to bullying

Supporter

Passive “Bullies”

Support the bullying, but do not take an active part

C

Possible

Defender

F

Passive

Supporter

Dislikes the bullying and think they ought to help, but don’t do it

D

Likes the bullying,

but do not display

open support

Disengaged

Onlooker

E

Teacher’s Handbook, Ch.3: Pg. 21

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010

Watches what happens * Is none of my business * Doesn’t take a stand


Group mechanisms in bullying
Group Mechanisms in Bullying we Can Do

  • Social contagion

  • Weakening inhibitions against aggression

  • Decreased sense of individual responsibility

  • Gradual changes in the view of bullied student(s)

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Effects of being bullied
Effects of we Can DoBeing Bullied

Lower self-esteem

Depression & anxiety

Absenteeism & lowered school achievement

Thoughts of suicide

Illness

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

Buhs we Can Do et al. (2006) Study of Peer Exclusion & Victimization and Academic Achievement

Peer

Exclusion

Peer Abuse

Classroom

Participation

School

Avoidance

Achievement

Decrease

Peer Rejection

  • Kindergarten 5th Grade

  • Peer rejection in K associated w/

  • peer exclusion & peer abuse, grades K-5.

  • Peer exclusion leads to decrease in classroom

  • participation, which leads to decrease in

  • achievement

  • Peer abuse leads to increase in school avoidance

  • (but not directly to decreases in achievement)

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

Conclusions from we Can DoBuhs et al. (2006)

“Peers’ sustained acts of exclusion, although perhaps not as visibly harmful as verbal or physical forms of abuse, may be particularly detrimental to children’s participation, foster disengagement from learning activities, and thus, have a greater impact than peer abuse (name calling & physical abuse) on their progress in the academic domain” (p. 11).


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

Fekkes, Pijpers, & Verloove-Vanhorick (2003). Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. Journal of Pediatrics, 144, 17-22.


Methodology
Methodology Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

  • 2,766 elementary school children (9-12 years) in the Netherlands

  • Completed survey of health symptoms and of bullying experiences

    • Frequent bullying = a few times a month or more (6%)

    • Frequent victimization = a few times a month of more (16%)


Health consequences of bullying fekkes et al 2004
Health Consequences of Bullying Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. (Fekkes et al., 2004)

BulliedNot bullied

Headache 16% 6%

Sleep problems 42% 23%

Abdominal pain 17% 9%

Feeling tense 20% 9%

Anxiety 28% 10%

Feeling unhappy 23% 5%

Depression scale

moderate indication 49% 16%

strong indication 16% 2%

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

Children at Higher Risk of Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. Being Bullied:

  • Children with disabilities, special needs, & health problems

  • Children who are obese

  • Children who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or who are questioning their identities (GLBTQ)

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Concerns about children who bully
Concerns About Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. Children Who Bully

More likely to:

Get into frequent fights

Be injured in a fight

Steal, vandalize property

Drink alcohol, smoke

Be truant, drop out of school

Report poorer academic achievement

Perceive a negative climate at school

Carry a weapon

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Children who bully
Children Who Bully Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

Bullying may be part of a conduct-disordered behavior pattern

Pattern may continue into young adulthood

Olweus: Students who bully were 4 x as likely to have 3 or more convictions by age 24

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Common triggers for bringing weapons to school
Common Triggers for Bringing Weapons to School Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

  • Fights

  • Bullying

  • Public displays of disrespect, especially toward rival gang members

  • Extortion of lunch money

  • Threats to commit acts of violence

  • Altercations over drug sales

    Michael Dorn (2007)


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

Common Myth About Children who Bully Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

  • “Children who bully are loners.”

  • “Children who bully have low self-esteem.”


Effects of bullying on bystanders
Effects of Bullying on Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. Bystanders

Bystanders may feel:

Afraid

Powerless to change the situation

Guilty for not acting

Diminished empathy for victims over time

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

The Bullying Circle Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

G

Starts the bullying ;takes active part

A

Student who Bullies

Defender

Bullied

Student

Dislikes the bullying, helps or tries to help the victim

Take active

part, but do not start the bullying

B

H

Followers

The one exposed to bullying

Supporter

Passive “Bullies”

Support the bullying, but do not take an active part

C

Possible

Defender

F

Passive

Supporter

Dislikes the bullying and think they ought to help, but don’t do it

D

Likes the bullying,

but do not display

open support

Disengaged

Onlooker

E

Teacher’s Handbook, Ch.3: Pg. 21

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010

Watches what happens * Is none of my business * Doesn’t take a stand


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

~Bystanders~ Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

“The world is a dangerous place to live, not because of those that do evil, but because of those who watch and let it happen.”

Albert Einstein

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010

23


Effects of bullying on school climate
Effects of Bullying on Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. School Climate

Creates a climate of fear & disrespect

Interferes with learning

Students may feel insecure & not like school as well

Students may perceive lack of control/caring

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


It s a question of rights

It’s a question of rights. Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

Ultimately...

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

Facts Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. About BULLYING

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


About the obq database
About the OBQ Database Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

  • Anonymous student data from surveys of students (since April, 07)

  • As of August 1, 2010 contained 1,075,258 completed student surveys.

  • Contains 524,054 data points for baseline assessments.

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Demographic information
Demographic Information Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

  • Grades 3-12

  • 1593 schools (94% Public schools in 45 States, plus DC & US Virgin Islands)

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Interest in the united states
Interest in the Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. United States

  • Heightened attention to youth violence and school violence

  • Recognition of the importance of early intervention

  • Development of a research base on bullying

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


The olweus bullying prevention program
The Olweus Bullying Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. Prevention Program

  • First systematic research on bullying conducted in early 1970s.

  • OBPP part of Norway’s national campaign against bullying in early 1980s.

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

OBPP Program Components Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

OBPP Principles imply… Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

  • Adults are responsible

  • Clear & consistent message

  • Short & long-term focus

  • Follow model with fidelity

  • OBPP should become part of everyday life at school

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Why is it important to address bullying in schools

OBPP Principles imply: Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

6. Student involvement in changing climate

7. Student learning about bullying

8. OBPP is NOT peer mediation or conflict resolution

9. OBPP is not a classroom management technique

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Now used k 12
Now used K-12 Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims.

www.olweus.org

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Olweus trainers in the us
Olweus Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. Trainers in the US

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010


Olweus trainers in the us1
Olweus Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. Trainers in the US

  • Over 1,000 trainers in 45 states

  • Trainers represent 35 trainer certification cohorts:

    Pennsylvania Tennessee

    Washington, DC Missouri

    Arizona California

    Indiana Louisiana

    Iowa Massachusetts

    Virginia Texas

    New York Florida

    Washington State Montana

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2010