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French Revolution. Vocabulary. Abbe Emmanuel Sieyes Marat (role while alive and after death) San Culottes Great Fear Great Terror Reign of Terror Thermidorian Reaction Differentiate between the National Assembly , National Convention , & The Directory.

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vocabulary
Vocabulary
  • Abbe Emmanuel Sieyes
  • Marat (role while alive and after death)
  • San Culottes
  • Great Fear
  • Great Terror
  • Reign of Terror
  • Thermidorian Reaction
  • Differentiate between the National Assembly , National Convention , & The Directory

Know the difference between all THREE

slide10
Declaration of the Rights of Man AND CITIZEN(August 1789 -Marquis de Lafayette, with the help of Jefferson) and the August Decrees
the radical phase of the revolution 1791

The Radical Phase of the Revolution1791

King Accepts Limited Monarchy

Royal Family Arrested

War with Austria

September Massacres

Execution of the King

death of marat jacobin journalist by a girondist sympathizer
Death of Marat (Jacobin Journalist) by a Girondist Sympathizer
  • San-culotte leader
  • Loose affiliation with

Jacobins

  • Journalist and

politician

french revolution1
French Revolution
  • Mix in: overspending by the Bourbon kings (the “Louisssss”) and absolute rule
  • Throw in a little (more like a lot) war debt: Spanish Succession, French and Indian War, American Revolution (no significant French gains)
  • Add: a draught and poor harvests (no food)
  • Top off with: heavy tax burden and few rights for the third Estate (see DBQ), few/no taxes for the first and second estates
what do you get
What Do You Get?
  • A meeting of the Estates General followed by
  • Formation of the National Assembly and the Tennis Court Oathfollowed by
  • The Storming of the Bastille and the Great Fear followed by
  • A Declaration of the Rights of Man and the August Decrees , followed by
  • Women’s Bread March and the King’s return to Paris followed by
  • a New Constitution (created by the National Assembly by 1791) establishing a constitutional monarchy followed by
  • The September Massacres (Sans-culottes) followed by
  • A New Constitution (created by the Convention in 1793) establishing a republic (king executed) followed by
  • A Committee of Public Safety and a Reign of Terror carried out by the Jacobins under Robespierre followed by
  • The Thermidorian Reaction
  • A New Constitution and a Directory in 1795 (five man government) followed by……
off roading notes aka ones you have to write
“Off Roading” Notes - aka ones you have to write

Old Regime

A. Peasant Distress

  • 4/5 of the population
  • Lost half their income in taxes
    • Paid feudal dues to nobles
    • Paid land tax (taille) and performed forced labor (called the corvee)
    • Paid royal taxes to King and tithes to Church
  • Grain shortages led to sharp increases in price of bread
off roading notes aka ones you have to write1
“Off Roading” Notes - aka ones you have to write

Old Regime

B. Government Debt

  • Louis XIV’s spending left massive public debt
    • Consumed ½ of France’s tax revenue
  • Seven Years’ War and American War worsened fiscal crisis
off roading notes aka ones you have to write2
“Off Roading” Notes - aka ones you have to write

Old Regime

C. Aristocratic Resistance

1. Nobles exempt from paying taxes

2. Successfully resisted all attempts to reform the tax system

off roading notes aka ones you have to write3
“Off Roading” Notes - aka ones you have to write

Old Regime

D. Royal Weakness

  • Louis XV was weak and indecisive
  • Louis XVI weak and indecisive; wife was particularly unpopular and frivolous
  • The high court of Paris, Parlement, assumed the right to approve or disapprove king’s decrees

a. Weakens royal power

off roading notes aka ones you have to write4
“Off Roading” Notes - aka ones you have to write

II. Estate General

A. Calling the Estate General

  • By spring of 1789, France on verge of bankruptcy
  • Louis forced to call the Estate General
off roading notes aka ones you have to write5
“Off Roading” Notes - aka ones you have to write

II. Estate General

B. Tennis Court Oath

  • Members of First and Second Estate assumed that each would back the other against the Third Estate.
  • Led by Abbe Emmanuel Sieyes, third estate rejected this demanded ALL three estates meet together
  • King rejected this and locked out 3rd Estate
  • Third Estate met at nearby indoor tennis court and took an oath not to disband until they had a constitution.
napoleon1
…..Napoleon?
  • 1799 – overthrew the directory, won control by plebecite (popular vote), declared himself “First Consul” under a new constitution (how many is that?)
  • Instituted reforms in agriculture, the economy (national bank), infrastructure, education, freedom of religion and established the “Napoleonic Code” in 1804 which allowed for a more fair justice system (provided equality under the law)
  • Abolishes feudal system and grants peasants freedom for manorial duties
  • *NOTE – improvements in France came with a price – speech and women’s rights suffered
what s good for france is good for everyone

Closing of all ports to Great Britain

  • Wanted to bankrupt GB in order to increase French economy
  • Angers Russia, too
What’s Good for France is Good for…Everyone?
  • Napoleon conquered Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, and the German States
  • 1810 - crowned himself Dictator for Life , but not for long
  • Nationalistic uprisings began to undermine his power, the “Continental System” failed and winter set in in Russia (what is Continental System?)
  • 1812 – Napoleon forced into exile
fall of napoleon from the crash course
Fall of Napoleon(From the Crash Course)
  • Aura of Invincibility
    • Military genius; lust for power made him commit three disastrous mistakes
  • The Continental System
  • Guerrilla warfare in Spain
    • Tries to put brother on throne; enrages Spanish ppl; lost 300,000 men in 5 yrs
  • Invasion of Russia
    • Tsar Alexander I couldn’t ship to GB; Napoleon reached Moscow, but too cold and Russian ruthlessly attacked and held on
hints for the test in may
Hints for the TEST in May
  • Know Battle of Austerlitz solidified Napoleon’s reputation as a military genius.
  • Focus study time on impact of his conquests on spreading nationalism (remember Germany and other countries)
  • Impact on dissolving Holy Roman Empire
congress of vienna back where we started
Congress of Vienna: Back Where We Started
  • 1815 – Balance of Power established in Europe (wars been over for 3 years - why so long to get started?)
  • French borders redrawn to their pre-Napoleonic dimensions and old monarchies established thru the policy of “legitimacy”
  • Kingdoms established in Poland and the Netherlands
  • Germany’s 300 independent states, reduced to 39
  • France – back to where it started in 1792 which is more land than France 1789
  • *Will later serve as a model for the League of Nations

Map on Pg. 756 in Textbook

key players
Key Players
  • Great Britain
  • Russia
  • Austria
  • Prussia
  • And France, of course
key players1
Key Players
  • Great Britain
    • Viscount Castlereagh
  • Russia
    • Tsar Alexander
  • Austria
    • Clemens Von Metternich
  • Prussia
    • Prince Hardenberg
  • And France, of course
    • Foreign Minister Tallyrand
intent of the congress of vienna
Intent of the Congress of Vienna
  • Prevent future expansion of France – they would not be able to get that powerful again
  • Restore the “rightful rulers” of Europe to power aka ______________?
result of the congress of vienna
Result of the Congress of Vienna
  • The Settlement
    • Surround France with strong states; creation of Netherlands results
      • Prussian satellite area on the Rhine
      • Austrian buffer states in Northern Italy
    • Germany’s 300 independent states now 39
    • Hapsburg HRE not reestablished
    • *Side note: The Hundred Days is known as the time period that Napoleon escapes from Elba and tries to make a comeback
result of the congress of vienna1
Result of the Congress of Vienna
  • The Concert of Europe – alliance known as the Quadruple Alliance designed to maintain the status quo
    • Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, & Austria [GRAP]
    • Uphold territorial boundaries
    • Help prop up the monarchies against the revolutionary idea of republicanism (where people elect their rulers)