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African American History Since the Civil War. dr. Liz Bryant. The emergence of the modern civil rights movement…. Double V Campaign. Double V Campaign. Democracy at home Democracy abroad. Double V Campaign.

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double v campaign1
Double V Campaign
  • Democracy at home
  • Democracy abroad
double v campaign2
Double V Campaign
  • African-Americans thought after World War II that they would be treated as full citizens
executive order 99812
Executive Order 9981
  • Desegregated the armed forces
north
North
  • Blacks continue to face racism and discrimination
south1
South
  • Jim Crow laws continue to rule the Southern United States
naacp1
NAACP
  • Founded in 1909
  • Had been challenging Jim Crow this entire time
naacp2
NAACP
  • Continued to use the court system to fight for equality
  • Primary focus: Education
naacp3
NAACP
  • Issue court cases could take years
naacp and the battle for equal education
NAACP and the Battle for Equal Education
  • Missouri Law School
    • Blacks are not allowed into the school
    • No separate law school for blacks
    • Court decides Missouri must pay a black student’s tuition at another school
naacp and the battle for equal education1
NAACP and the Battle for Equal Education
  • Texas Law School
    • Same situation as Missouri
    • No law school for blacks in TX
    • Court ruled that a separate school needed to be built for one student
naacp and the battle for equal education2
NAACP and the Battle for Equal Education
  • University of Oklahoma Ph.D. in Education
    • Qualified black student, no Ph.D. program in education
    • School admits student BUT:
      • Cannot sit in classroom
      • Cannot use library
      • Cannot eat in the cafeteria at the same time as white students
brown v board of education of topeka ks
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS
  • Supreme Court rules 9-0 that separate is NOT equal
  • Plessy v. Ferguson is overturned
  • Legally ends segregation in schools
brown v board3
Brown v Board
  • Schools must desegregate with “all deliberate speed”
  • No timetable is set
  • Takes until the end of the 1960s for schools to fully desegregate
brown v board4
Brown v. Board
  • Impacts the entire United States not just the South
white reaction to the brown decision
White Reaction to the Brown Decision
  • Some schools are integrated with no problems
white reaction to the brown decision1
White Reaction to the Brown Decision
  • In the South, there is major opposition to this decision
white citizens councils3
White Citizens Councils
  • Do not want schools to integrate
southern manifesto3
Southern Manifesto
  • Signed by Southern Senators and Congressmen
  • Say that the Brown decision needed to be overturned
black reaction to brown v board
Black Reaction to Brown v. Board
  • Black parents want to take advantage of allowing their children to go to better schools
    • Want them to have better resources
    • Want them to have a better education
black reaction to brown v board1
Black Reaction to Brown v. Board
  • Consequences are often severe for black parents who have their children integrate white schools
reaction of the government to the brown decision2
Reaction of the Government to the Brown Decision
  • Eisenhower tried to stay away from all controversial issues
  • Takes no real action after the Brown decision
little rock 95
Little Rock 9
  • 9 African-American students try and integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas
little rock 96
Little Rock 9
  • Met with a tremendous amount of resistance from whites
orval faubus1
Orval Faubus
  • Governor of Arkansas
  • Sends in the National Guard to keep black students from entering Central High School
dwight eisenhower1
Dwight Eisenhower
  • Even though Eisenhower wants to stay away from these issues, his hand is forced by Faubus
  • Faubus- blatantly disregarding FEDERAL LAW
little rock 97
Little Rock 9
  • All of this is playing out on television for the world to see
little rock 99
Little Rock 9
  • 101st Airborne is sent in to escort black students into the school
  • Stay for a year
little rock 910
Little Rock 9
  • All public schools in Little Rock close after this (in 1958) rather than allow integration
  • Leased schools out so segregated education could continue
  • Known as “the lost year”
emergence of the modern civil rights movement
Emergence of the Modern Civil Rights Movement
  • While the NAACP was using the court system to challenge Jim Crow laws, what were ordinary Americans doing?
emergence of the modern civil rights movement1
Emergence of the Modern Civil Rights Movement
  • Non-violent movement
  • Focus on civil disobedience
  • African-American church was at the center of many of these movements
difference between the modern civil rights movement and the naacp
Difference between the Modern Civil Rights Movement and the NAACP
  • Modern Civil Rights Movement focused on the use of direct action
montgomery improvement association1
Montgomery Improvement Association
  • This organization can be credited with starting the modern civil rights movement
montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Began when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man
slide72
Myth:
  • Rosa Parks was too tired to get up
reality
Reality:
  • This was an action that had been planned by the Montgomery Improvement Association
slide74
Why?
  • Blacks were tired of having to give up their seats to whites
  • Also, many times when blacks paid for their tickets and went to get on the back of the bus, the driver drove away intentionally leaving them
montgomery bus boycott1
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Blacks made up the majority of bus riders in Montgomery so they felt as if they could challenge the system
demands
Demands:
  • First come, first serve seating
  • Courteous treatment by drivers
  • African-American drivers on African-American routes
montgomery bus boycott7
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Well-organized
  • Carpooled
  • Walked
  • Very, very rare to see any African-Americans on buses
montgomery bus boycott8
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • City was losing money since blacks had constituted the majority of bus riders
  • Still refused to give into the demands of the Montgomery Improvement Association
montgomery bus boycott9
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Boycott lasted almost one year
    • Non-violent
    • Civil disobedience
    • Christian
browder v gayle
Browder v. Gayle
  • Supreme Court rules it unconstitutional for bus segregation
impact of the montgomery bus boycott
Impact of the Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Showed the potential of non-violent mass protest to enact change
  • Used as the model for other civil rights campaigns
montgomery bus boycott10
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Cements Martin Luther King Jr. as one of the leaders of the Civil Rights Movement
slide93
SCLC
  • 1957
  • Led by Martin Luther King Jr.
slide95
SCLC
  • Functions as the political arm of the black church
  • Many of the leaders of this organization were ministers
  • Important because black churches provided a place to mobilize
slide96
SCLC
  • Focused on coordinating local movements
  • Wanted people to feel the impact of their actions
sclc and the naacp
SCLC and the NAACP
  • SCLC supplements the NAACP with its own brand of activism
  • NAACP: Court cases
  • SCLC: Direct Action
martin luther king jr3
Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Often seen as “the” leader of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Key: he did not do it on his own
martin luther king jr beliefs
Martin Luther King Jr. Beliefs
  • Wanted: Integration
  • Worked with whites
birmingham6
Birmingham
  • “…as goes Birmingham, so goes the South.”
  • SCLC and MLK plan a massive campaign here
  • Known as Project-C
birmingham7
Birmingham
  • Known for police brutality under Bull Connor
birmingham8
Birmingham
  • May 2, 1963- 6000 African American children (aged 6-16 march)
  • Attacked with fire hoses and dogs
  • Beaten by police
birmingham9
Birmingham
  • All of this violence was playing out on the news
birmingham11
Birmingham
  • Impact:
    • Segregation ends
birmingham12
Birmingham
  • Consequences:
    • King’s house, King’s brother’s house, and the SCLC headquarters are all bombed
birmingham and king
Birmingham and King
  • Arrested and jailed
  • Did not have a permit to hold the march
moderate white reaction to birmingham
“Moderate” White Reaction to Birmingham
  • Praise for Bull Connor’s “moderation”
  • Criticism of King for being too “impatient”
  • Said King was an outsider and had no business intervening in the city’s affairs
slide120
King
  • Devastated by these criticisms especially since they came from moderate white preachers
letter from a birmingham jail1
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
  • One of King’s most powerful statements
  • Gets attention of both Republican and Democratic political leaders
  • Defends his non-violent strategy
march on washington for jobs and freedom3
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
  • August 28, 1963
  • 250,000 attended (60,000 were whites)
march on washington for jobs and freedom4
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
  • Goal:
    • Equal rights
    • Better opportunities in the workplace
    • “Jobs and Freedom”
march on washington for jobs and freedom5
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
  • Continuation of what A. Philip Randolph worked for during World War II
selma alabama3
Selma, Alabama
  • Goal: Registration of black voters
  • Only 3% were registered to vote
bloody sunday1
Bloody Sunday
  • Over 70 end up in the hospital
importance of selma
Importance of Selma
  • Demonstrates the need for a federal voting rights act
martin luther king jr6
Martin Luther King Jr.
  • April 4, 1968
  • 39 years old
james earl ray1
James Earl Ray
  • Fled
  • Took several months for the FBI to capture (found in London)
  • Confessed
  • Later recanted; said he had nothing to do with King’s death and it was a government conspiracy
  • Never gave motives for his involvement in the shooting
slide160
CORE
  • 1942
  • Chicago
core beliefs
CORE Beliefs
  • Non-violence
  • Civil disobedience
  • Interracial cooperation
slide162
CORE
  • Was active in both the north and south
  • South
    • Fought segregation
  • North
    • Fought against discrimination in housing and employment
    • Fought against school segregation
freedom rides5
Freedom Rides
  • 1961- CORE sent members to the deep South to desegregate public bus terminals
  • Met with extreme violence
  • One bus was fire-bombed
freedom riders
Freedom Riders
  • Both black and white
  • Severely beaten by white mobs
  • Occurs throughout the South
freedom rides6
Freedom Rides
  • Violence was playing out on TV so other civil rights organizations such as SNCC decide to get involved to help CORE
freedom summer4
Freedom Summer
  • CORE works with SNCC and the NAACP
  • Focus on ending disfranchisement in Mississippi
    • 6% of blacks had the right to vote
  • Sent people down to help African-Americans register to vote
freedom school2
Freedom School
  • Taught black history and the philosophy of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Over 3000 students attend
white reaction to the freedom summer
White Reaction to the Freedom Summer
  • Violently opposed
    • Freedom schools attacked
    • 30 black homes burned
    • 37 black churches burned
    • 80 volunteers (black and white) were beaten by the police or white mobs
freedom summer workers
Freedom Summer Workers
  • Murdered by the KKK
  • Receives national attention
  • Mississippi refuses to prosecute anyone for their role in these murders
  • Federal government gets involved
  • 18 charged/ 7 convicted
    • Those convicted all receive light sentences for their crimes
slide189
CORE
  • 1968- CORE becomes more radicalized
  • Begins to support the philosophy of black nationalism
  • Can no longer be thought of as part of the mainstream civil rights movement
slide192
SNCC
  • 1960
  • Founded as an alternative to the SCLC
  • Members were generally young
slide193
SNCC
  • Believed it important that all members had a voice rather than the movement having one central figurehead
slide194
SNCC
  • Willing to work with the SCLC
  • Had their own brand of activism
  • Initially non-violent
sit ins2
Sit-Ins
  • Would go to a segregated business and sit there until they were served
freedom rides8
Freedom Rides
  • SNCC worked with CORE on the Freedom Rides
albany movement2
Albany Movement
  • Challenged all forms of segregation in Albany, GA
  • Few tangible gains but brought nationwide attention to Albany
  • Cemented SNCC’s importance in the Civil Rights Movement
transformation of sncc
Transformation of SNCC
  • Members began questioning:
    • Non-violence
    • White involvement in the organization
transformation of sncc1
Transformation of SNCC
  • These questions led to divides within the organization
carmichael and sncc
Carmichael and SNCC
  • 1966- Carmichael is name the chairman of SNCC
  • Transforms from a civil rights organization to a Black Power movement
women in the civil rights movement1
Women in the Civil Rights Movement
  • Too often the actions of women are overlooked
  • Often worked behind the scenes
  • Male civil rights leaders would not have been able to accomplish anywhere near as much without the efforts of women
ella baker2
Ella Baker
  • Involved in almost every civil rights organization
    • NAACP
    • National Director of SCLC
    • Founder of SNCC
fannie lou hamer4
Fannie Lou Hamer
  • Sharecropper from Mississippi
  • Involuntarily sterilized by the state
    • Never able to have children
hamer and the civil rights movement
Hamer and the Civil Rights Movement
  • 1962- went to a meeting held by SNCC
  • Decided to register to vote
  • Went with 17 other blacks to the courthouse
  • Harassed by the police and KKK
  • Fired from her job
hamer and the civil rights movement1
Hamer and the Civil Rights Movement
  • 1962-64- worked as an organizer for SNCC in Mississippi
  • Harassment
  • Arrested
  • While in jail, was beaten so badly she lost vision in her left eye and had horrible health problems the rest of her life
hamer and the civil rights movement2
Hamer and the Civil Rights Movement
  • Participated in the Freedom Summer
hamer and the civil rights movement3
Hamer and the Civil Rights Movement
  • Believed the movement needed to be interracial
mississippi freedom democratic party2
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
  • Hamer helped found this organization
  • Wanted to showcase their problems at the national level
mississippi freedom democratic party3
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
  • Went to the 1964 Democratic Convention
  • Asked to be seated
  • Said the Mississippi delegation was not valid because blacks in Mississippi could not vote
  • Democratic Party ignored the delegation
charlayne hunter2
Charlayne Hunter
  • Example of an “ordinary” woman during this era
  • Not involved in the civil rights movement officially but was representative of many black women during this time
charlayne hunter3
Charlayne Hunter
  • 1961- first African-American student accepted at the University of Georgia
  • School didn’t want her to attend because she was black
  • She wanted to go because UGA had the best journalism school
charlayne hunter4
Charlayne Hunter
  • “two, four, six, eight, we don’t want to integrate… niggah go home.”
charlayne hunter5
Charlayne Hunter
  • Attended UGA and earned her degree
  • Paved the way for other African-Americans to attend this school
james meredith2
James Meredith
  • 1961- court rules University of Mississippi has to be desegregated
  • Meredith- first African-American student to go to the University of Mississippi
ross barnett2
Ross Barnett
  • Governor of Mississippi
  • Personally blocked Meredith from registering for classes
  • Said any federal troops sent in would be arrested by the state militia
john f kennedy1
John F Kennedy
  • Sent in 320 federal marshals to escort Meredith to his dorm room
battle of oxford
Battle of Oxford
  • Thousands of whites attacked the federal marshals and Meredith
  • Guns, clubs, bombs
  • 2 dead
  • 300 injured
  • Thousands in property damage
battle of oxford outcome
Battle of Oxford Outcome
  • Over 300 soldiers were stationed at the University of Mississippi for a year to ensure peace
meredith
Meredith
  • Continued to work in the Civil Rights Movement
  • 1966- shot while conducting a one-man freedom march to draw attention to conditions in the area for blacks
george wallace2
George Wallace
  • Governor of Alabama
  • “I draw the line in the dust…and I say, segregation now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation forever!”
  • Becomes the face for anti-integration
george wallace3
George Wallace
  • 1963- University of Alabama was ordered to be desegregated
  • Wallace stands in the doorway to try and block this from happening (June 1963)
wallace
Wallace
  • 1968- runs for President with the American Independent Party
  • Platform: Segregation
us during the civil rights movement
US During the Civil Rights Movement
  • Blacks and whites knew that this meant that changes would be occurring
  • Whites- found many of these changes too radical (especially in the South)
  • Caused many whites to harden their stance on segregation
us during the civil rights movement1
US During the Civil Rights Movement
  • At the same time whites were becoming more supportive of segregation, blacks were realizing that change was not coming quickly
  • Led many to become more radicalized
  • Led to the emergence of the Black Power movement