African American History Since the Civil War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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African American History Since the Civil War

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  1. African American History Since the Civil War dr. Liz Bryant

  2. The emergence of the modern civil rights movement…

  3. Double V Campaign

  4. Double V Campaign • Democracy at home • Democracy abroad

  5. Double V Campaign • African-Americans thought after World War II that they would be treated as full citizens

  6. Harry Truman

  7. Executive Order 9981

  8. Executive Order 9981

  9. Executive Order 9981 • Desegregated the armed forces

  10. Life for blacks in America…

  11. North • Blacks continue to face racism and discrimination

  12. South

  13. South • Jim Crow laws continue to rule the Southern United States

  14. It was time to challenge the notion of “separate but equal…”

  15. NAACP

  16. NAACP • Founded in 1909 • Had been challenging Jim Crow this entire time

  17. NAACP during the 1950s

  18. NAACP • Continued to use the court system to fight for equality • Primary focus: Education

  19. NAACP • Issue court cases could take years

  20. NAACP and the Battle for Equal Education • Missouri Law School • Blacks are not allowed into the school • No separate law school for blacks • Court decides Missouri must pay a black student’s tuition at another school

  21. NAACP and the Battle for Equal Education • Texas Law School • Same situation as Missouri • No law school for blacks in TX • Court ruled that a separate school needed to be built for one student

  22. NAACP and the Battle for Equal Education • University of Oklahoma Ph.D. in Education • Qualified black student, no Ph.D. program in education • School admits student BUT: • Cannot sit in classroom • Cannot use library • Cannot eat in the cafeteria at the same time as white students

  23. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS • Supreme Court rules 9-0 that separate is NOT equal • Plessy v. Ferguson is overturned • Legally ends segregation in schools

  24. Brown v Board

  25. Brown v Board

  26. Brown v Board

  27. Brown v Board • Schools must desegregate with “all deliberate speed” • No timetable is set • Takes until the end of the 1960s for schools to fully desegregate

  28. Brown v. Board • Impacts the entire United States not just the South

  29. White Reaction to the Brown Decision • Some schools are integrated with no problems

  30. White Reaction to the Brown Decision • In the South, there is major opposition to this decision

  31. White Citizens Councils

  32. White Citizens Councils

  33. White Citizens Councils

  34. White Citizens Councils • Do not want schools to integrate

  35. Southern Manifesto

  36. Southern Manifesto

  37. Southern Manifesto

  38. Southern Manifesto • Signed by Southern Senators and Congressmen • Say that the Brown decision needed to be overturned

  39. Black Reaction to Brown v. Board • Black parents want to take advantage of allowing their children to go to better schools • Want them to have better resources • Want them to have a better education

  40. Black Reaction to Brown v. Board • Consequences are often severe for black parents who have their children integrate white schools

  41. Reaction of the Government to the Brown Decision

  42. Reaction of the Government to the Brown Decision

  43. Reaction of the Government to the Brown Decision • Eisenhower tried to stay away from all controversial issues • Takes no real action after the Brown decision

  44. Little Rock 9

  45. Little Rock 9

  46. Little Rock 9

  47. Little Rock 9

  48. Little Rock 9

  49. Little Rock 9 • 9 African-American students try and integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

  50. Little Rock 9 • Met with a tremendous amount of resistance from whites