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Cloning. Describe the production of natural clones in plants: vegetative propagation in elm trees. What is a clone?. E.g. Bacterial populations, identical twins, strawberry plants. Clone: gene, cell or organism which carries same genetic information from the same original DNA.

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cloning

Cloning

Describe the production of natural clones in plants: vegetative propagation in elm trees

what is a clone
What is a clone?

E.g. Bacterial populations,

identical twins, strawberry plants

Clone:

  • gene, cell or organism which carries same genetic information
  • from the same original DNA

Careful! Make sure you distinguish between

cloned genes,

cloned cells

or cloned organisms

asexual reproduction
Advantages

Quick

No need for another organism (if sexual rep impossible)

All offspring have alleles which enable survival

Disadvantages

No genetic variation: population may be vulnerable to change in environment

Asexual reproduction
how it works
How it works

Destruction of main trunk 

  • Root suckers / basal sprouts appear
  • From meristem tissue in trunk
  • Close to ground
  • Forms circle of new growth- clonal patch
asexual reproduction in plants vegetative propagation in elm trees
Advantages

Helps plants spread

Enables survival following damage to parent tree (disease, burning, felling)

Disadvantages

Susceptible to disease- no genetic variation

E.g. Dutch elm disease fungal disease carried by beetle

Asexual reproduction in plants= vegetative propagation (in elm trees)

Now do questions on p153

the pathogen the vector and the damage
The pathogen, the vector and the damage

Ophiostoma ulmi.

Ulmus procera

Scolytus multistriatus

questions
Questions
  • What advantage would it be for elm trees to reproduce both sexually and asexually?
  • Why is it called vegetative?
  • Describe how varieties of elm tree might be produced which are resistant to Dutch elm disease.
artificial clones and agriculture
Artificial clones and agriculture
  • Describe the production of artificial clones from tissue culture
  • Discuss advantages and disadvantages of plant cloning in agriculture
micro propagation
Micro-propagation
  • Definition:
  • Growing plants from seed or small pieces of tissue under sterile conditions on specially selected media
  • (http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/ksheets/pdfs/k1microprop.pdf#search=%22micro-propagation%22)
the process
The process
  • stock plant care
  • explant selection
  • Sterilization – killing bacteria
  • media manipulation – using the correct nutrient
  • acclimation – correct temperature and humidity
  • growing on of liners.
micro propagation1
Micro-propagation
  • Mass production of plants by placing tiny pieces of plant tissue in sterile glass containers along with nutrients.
  • Perfect clones of superplants are produced in sterile cabinets, with filtered air and carefully controlled light, temperature, and humidity.
  • Uses:-the house-plant industry and for forestry –
  • Gives immediate results, whereas obtaining genetically homogeneous tree seed by traditional means would take over a hundred years.
  • http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0038573.html
references
References
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marker_gene

lhttp://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/courses/hort250/animations/Gene%20Gun%20Animation/Genegun1.html

http://www.ncbe.reading.ac.uk/NCBE/GMFOOD/technology.html

http://www.biotech.iastate.edu/lab_protocols/AV_Micropropagation.html

lhttp://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/courses/hort250/animations/Gene%20Gun%20Animation/Genegun1.html

http://www.ncbe.reading.ac.uk/NCBE/GMFOOD/technology.html

http://www.biotech.iastate.edu/lab_protocols/AV_Micropropagation.html

http://cls.casa.colostate.edu/TransgenicCrops/teacher%20workshop%20I%207-01_files/frame.htm

Powerpoint – v good

how it s done
Taking cuttings

Grafting

How it’s done

Rootstock

Roots develop here, below node

Clone of original plant

tissue culture
Tissue culture
  • Small piece of tissue cut from plant explant
  • Placed in nutrient growth medium
  • Mitosis undifferentiated mass- callus
  • Callus cells placed on growth medium + plant hormones
  • Plantlets transferred to new growth medium
  • Then to greenhouse
micropropagation by callus tissue culture
Advantages

Very large numbers of plants

Genetically identical- same yield, taste, colour.

Free of disease

Same time to harvest- reduces cost

Disadvantages

Susceptible to pests and diseases

Micropropagation by callus tissue culture

N.B. This is not

genetic engineering,

but a form of selective breeding

slide18
Why must meristem cells be present?
  • Explain why tissue culture is not genetic engineering
  • Why might it be useful to graft material from a good ruit producing tree on to a different rootstock?
cloning in animals genetically identical organisms
Cloning in animals: genetically identical organisms
  • Describe how artificial clones of animals can be produced
  • Discuss advantages and disadvantages of cloning animals
  • Outline differences between reproductive and non-reproductive cloning
reproductive cloning
Reproductive cloning
  • Produces whole new organisms which are genetically identical to parent

2 methods:

1)Splitting embryos

2)Transfer of nucleus

how is it done
How is it done?

Use the 1st animation on the next slide to find out about:

  • Artificial identical twins
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer / enucleated eggs

Then use the 2nd animation to try cloning a mouse ☺

Review the whole process using 3rd one

cloning animations
Cloning animations
  • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/whatiscloning/
  • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/clickandclone/
  • http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/cloning101.html
non reproductive cloning
Non-reproductive cloning

Uses cloned cells to produce new cells, tissues and organs