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Cloning Cloning. Dolly, or Ewe-2, An Ethical Problem. Cloning presents a moral issue that must be studied from the standpoints of many different disciplines. The Present State of Affairs. Some success in cloning mammals, beginning with Dolly, most recently CC, a cat.

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cloning cloning

Cloning Cloning

(c) Lawrence M. Hinman

dolly or ewe 2 an ethical problem
Dolly, or Ewe-2, An Ethical Problem

Cloning presents a moral issue that must be studied from the standpoints of many different disciplines

(c) Lawrence M. Hinman

the present state of affairs
The Present State of Affairs
  • Some success in cloning mammals, beginning with Dolly, most recently CC, a cat.
    • Genetic Savings and Clone
  • One team in Seoul claims to have cloned a human being and stopped the process after the four cell stage.
  • A team—Panos Zavos, a professor of reproductive medicine at the University of Kentucky and Severino Antinori, a physician who heads an Italian fertility clinic—announced at the beginning of 2001 that it intended to clone a human being within the next 12-24 months.

(c) Lawrence M. Hinman

the present state of affairs 2
The Present State of Affairs, 2
  • The Raelians believe that human beings were created by creatures from outer space (the Elohim) by genetic science and that cloning is the way in which we can pass consciousness along to successive bodies. They claim that they will clone a human being in the next two years. They have centers in 84 countries.
  • A couple from Charleston, the Hunts, hired a scientist to clone their dead son. They hired Dr. Brigitte Boissellier, a French biochemist who has presented her findings on human cloning to the National Academy of Science and also a Raelian, to set up the lab.

(c) Lawrence M. Hinman

the present state of affairs 3
The Present State of Affairs, 3
  • Advanced Cell Technology Inc announced in the fall, 2001 that it had successfully cloned the first human embryos for “therapeutic” purposes, according to Dr. West, the company’s President.
  • Dr. Richard Seed has a private team in Chicago that in 2002 expected to clone a human being within the next year.

(c) Lawrence M. Hinman

present state of affairs 4
Present State of Affairs, 4
  • In 2003
    • Britain issued research licenses for human embryonic cloning to create stem cells. It permitted therapeutic cloning, but not reproductive cloning.
  • In 2004
    • South Korean scientists, headed by Dr. Hwang Woo-suk of Seoul National University, cloned 30 human embryos. They produced a single stem cell line from one of the embryos.
    • Britain announced the first embryonic stem cell bank.
  • 2005
    • South Korean researcher Dr. Hwang Woo-suk cloned almost a dozen human embryos and extracted stem cells from them that are genetically matched to specific people with various diseases.
    • South Korea cloneed a dog names Snuppy, Dogs are considered particularly difficult to clone because of the complex reproductive biology.
  • Source: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0193002.html

(c) Lawrence M. Hinman

motivations for cloning
Motivations for Cloning
  • Narcissism: self-perpetuation
    • This is often a motivation in other actions that we do not restrict, including having children.
  • Replace dead children
    • Some parents who have suffered the loss of a child may want to have it cloned.
  • Couples with both male and female infertility factors who do not want to use donors
  • Those for whom traditional infertility treatments were unsuccessful
  • Lesbians who do not want to use donor sperm
  • Individuals with rare genetic disorders
  • Use as organ donor, etc.
    • With a clone, there are no worries about organ rejection.

(c) Lawrence M. Hinman

ethical issue 1 the human cost of cloning
Ethical Issue #1:The Human Cost of Cloning
  • In order to achieve successful cloning, many mistakes may be made along the way.
    • Human beings with serious defects and deficits may be created
    • Does this violate basic human rights?
    • Is it merely using persons as a means to an end?

(c) Lawrence M. Hinman

ethical issue 2 the problem of uniqueness
Ethical Issue #2:The Problem of Uniqueness

If the clone is an exact replica, will it have its own identity?

  • Analogous to identical twins, who in fact have individual identity
  • Clones in fact would be more different than identical twins, since they would probably not be the same age. (Exception: if multiple copies were cloned at the same time.)
  • Identity is not solely dependent on genes.

(c) Lawrence M. Hinman

ethical issue 3 what are the long term consequences
Ethical Issue #3:What are the long-term consequences?
  • Many critics of cloning are worried about what the long-term consequences of cloning might be.
    • Reducing genetic diversity
    • Causing unanticipated diseases and weaknesses

(c) Lawrence M. Hinman

ethical issue 4 should cloning be regulated
Ethical Issue #4:Should cloning be regulated?
  • Regulation can only be done within a given country, so regulation may just force researches to take their projects elsewhere.

(c) Lawrence M. Hinman